Neurological Manifestations of Neuropathy and Ataxia in Celiac Disease: A Systematic Review.

Nutrients. 2019;11(2)

Plain language summary

Coeliac disease (CD) is a chronic, immune-mediated enteropathy in which dietary gluten triggers an inflammatory reaction of the small intestine in genetically predisposed individuals. The clinical presentation of the disease varies broadly and may include both intestinal symptoms and extra-intestinal manifestations, including iron-deficiency anaemia, osteoporosis, dermatitis herpetiformis, and neurological disorders, such as peripheral neuropathies and ataxia (a condition that affects co-ordination, balance and speech). Many patients who present with neurological manifestations of CD have no gastrointestinal symptoms, commonly leading to a delay in diagnosis. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the prevalence of peripheral neuropathies and gluten ataxia. Nine studies on gluten ataxia and 13 on gluten neuropathy were included in this review. The prevalence of both, neuropathy and ataxia, in the general population is very low, but this risk is increased in patients with CD. Estimates of the prevalence of neuropathy in CD patients ranged from 0% to 39%, with an increased risk in older and female patients. Prevalence of gluten ataxia varied from 0% to 6%. Symptoms of gluten neuropathy improve when patients with CD follow a gluten free diet (GFD), whilst the benefits of a GFD for ataxia vary between studies, possibly due to differences in study design. The authors note that this review primarily concentrated on patients with CD (i.e. those with evidence of enteropathy). However, neurological manifestations may exist in the presence of anti-gliadin antibodies alone (gluten sensitivity without evidence of enteropathy), and such patients benefit equally from a GFD. The authors conclude that patients with CD have an increased risk of gluten ataxia and gluten neuropathy, and that clinicians should check for gluten sensitivity in patients with ataxia and neuropathy of unknown origin.

Abstract

Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated gastrointestinal disorder driven by innate and adaptive immune responses to gluten. Patients with CD are at an increased risk of several neurological manifestations, frequently peripheral neuropathy and gluten ataxia. A systematic literature review of the most commonly reported neurological manifestations (neuropathy and ataxia) associated with CD was performed. MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and conference proceedings were systematically searched from January 2007 through September 2018. Included studies evaluated patients with CD with at least one neurological manifestation of interest and reported prevalence, and/or incidence, and/or clinical outcomes. Sixteen studies were included describing the risk of gluten neuropathy and/or gluten ataxia in patients with CD. Gluten neuropathy was a neurological manifestation in CD (up to 39%) in 13 studies. Nine studies reported a lower risk and/or prevalence of gluten ataxia with a range of 0%⁻6%. Adherence to a gluten-free diet appeared to improve symptoms of both neuropathy and ataxia. The prevalence of gluten neuropathy and gluten ataxia in patients with CD varied in reported studies, but the increased risk supports the need for physicians to consider CD in patients with ataxia and neurological manifestations of unknown etiology.

Lifestyle medicine

Fundamental Clinical Imbalances : Neurological ; Digestive, absorptive and microbiological
Patient Centred Factors : Mediators/Gluten
Environmental Inputs : Diet ; Nutrients
Personal Lifestyle Factors : Nutrition
Functional Laboratory Testing : Blood
Bioactive Substances : Gluten

Methodological quality

Allocation concealment : Not applicable
Publication Type : Journal Article ; Review

Metadata