Association between eating behaviour and diet quality: eating alone vs. eating with others.
Nutrition journal. 2018;17(1):117
Plain language summary
Selecting foods for a day is easily influenced by the social environment and eating together or alone plays a big role in that decision. The study aims to evaluate the association between diet quality of the modern Korean adult population based on the eating behaviour and the socioeconomic factors that influence their diet quality. The study is a cross-sectional study which included 3365 men and 5258 women aged between 19 and 64 years. The study included demographic, socioeconomics, and health behaviour factors as covariates. Results indicate that diet quality is influence by eating behaviour. Authors observed that when Korean adults ate without a companion, their diet quality was significantly lower than those who consistently ate with others. Furthermore, from the higher education to lower education level, the diet quality declined when they eat alone. Authors conclude that many Korean adults are experiencing low diet quality when they eat alone. The study provides evidence to promote interventions to improve diet quality among the public.
BACKGROUND To discover the association between eating alone and diet quality among Korean adults who eat alone measured by the mean adequacy ratio (MAR), METHODS The cross-sectional study in diet quality which was measured by nutrient intakes, indicated as MAR and nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) with the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) VI 2013-2015 data. Study population was 8523 Korean adults. Multiple linear regression was performed to identify the association between eating behaviour and MAR and further study analysed how socioeconomic factors influence the diet quality of those who eat alone. RESULTS We found that the diet quality of people who eat alone was lower than that of people who eat together in both male (β: - 0.110, p = 0.002) and female participants (β: - 0.069, p = 0.005). Among who eats alone, the socioeconomic factors that negatively influenced MAR with the living arrangement, education level, income levels, and various occupation classifications. CONCLUSIONS People who eat alone have nutrition intake below the recommended amount. This could lead to serious health problems not only to those who are socially disadvantaged but also those who are in a higher social stratum. Policy-makers should develop strategies to enhance diet quality to prevent potential risk factors.
Functional biochemical and nutrient indices in frail elderly people are partly affected by dietary supplements but not by exercise.
The Journal of nutrition. 1999;129(11):2028-36
Plain language summary
Elderly people are at risk of nutritional deficiencies for a variety of reasons including reduced appetite, increased medication, and alterations in the absorption and metabolism of vitamins and minerals with age. The aim of this study was to measure the influence of exercise, and supplementing the diet with vitamins and minerals, on indicators of nutritional and health status in frail elderly people. A 17-week randomised controlled trial was carried out on 145 frail elderly people living in the community. Participants were given either; 1) food products enriched with vitamins D, E, thiamine, riboflavin, B6, folic acid, B12, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and iodine; 2) an exercise programme; 3) both enriched food products and exercise programme; or 4) food products that had not been enriched and a social programme (the control group). At the end of the study, significant improvements in the blood levels of vitamins B6, B12, C and D were detected in the groups receiving the enriched food products compared to the controls. There was no additional benefit to be gained from exercise. The improvement in nutritional status did not appear to influence several other biological indicators of health, perhaps because these indicators were already within normal levels at the start of the study. Despite this, the authors concluded that long-term supplementation may help to maintain optimal vitamin and mineral levels in elderly people, and therefore reduce the chance of this population developing health problems related to malnutrition.
A decline in dietary intake due to inactivity and, consequently, development of a suboptimal nutritional status is a major problem in frail elderly people. However, benefits of micronutrient supplementation, all-round physical exercise or a combination of both on functional biochemical and hematologic indicators of nutritional and health status in frail elderly subjects have not been tested thoroughly. A 17-wk randomized controlled trial was performed in 145 free-living frail elderly people (43 men, 102 women, mean age, 78 +/- 5.7 y). Based on a 2 x 2 factorial design, subjects were assigned to one of the following: 1) nutrient-dense foods, 2) exercise, 3) both (1) and (2) or 4) a control group. Foods were enriched with micronutrients, frequently characterized as deficient [25-100% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA)] in elderly people. Exercises focused on skill training, including strength, endurance, coordination and flexibility. Dietary intake, blood vitamin levels and nutritional and health indicators, including (pre)albumin, ferritin, transferrin, C-reactive protein, hemoglobin and lymphocytes were measured. At baseline, 28% of the total population had an energy intake below 6.3 MJ, up to a maximum of 93% having vitamin intakes below two thirds of the Dutch RDA. Individual deficiencies in blood at baseline ranged from 3% for erythrocyte glutathione reductase-alpha to 39% for 25-hydroxy vitamin D and 42% for vitamin B-12. These were corrected after 17 wk in the two groups receiving the nutrient-dense foods, whereas no significant changes were observed in the control or exercise group. Biochemical and hematologic indicators at baseline were within the reference ranges (mean albumin, 46 g/L; prealbumin, 0.25 g/L; hemoglobin, 8.6 mmol/L) and were not affected by any of the interventions. The long-term protective effects of nutrient supplementation and exercise, by maintaining optimal nutrient levels and thereby reducing the initial chance of developing critical biochemical values, require further investigation. Other indicative functional variables for suboptimal nutritional status, in addition to those currently selected, should also be explored.
[Abnormal effect of nitrosation inhibitors in human gastric juice].
Voprosy onkologii. 1986;32(10):58-64
Plain language summary
Growth faltering in infancy establishes a trajectory for lifelong health of the individual and population. Stunted growth is due to the combined effect inadequate diet (malnutrition) and infection that affects the gut mucosal lining, with increased nutrient loss due to maldigestion and malabsorption, and increased nutritional requirements due to inflammation. Intestinal integrity in infants has been improved through supplementation with vitamin A and Zinc. Iron deficiency anemia may impair intestinal integrity. This study investigates the effects of complementary fortified food on gut integrity and systemic inflammation among Zambian infants age 6-18months. Infants of 6 months +/- 2 weeks old were randomised to either 50g/day richly fortified porridge mix or 50g basal porridge mix fortified with micronutrient levels planned for maize fortification in Zambia. At 18 months, the richly fortified porridge group had a significantly higher mean lactulose to mannitol ratio than the basal-fortified group, indicating they had significantly higher intestinal permeability. This effect was not modified by child’s sex, maternal HIV status, concurrent breast-feeding or baseline anaemia. The biological significance of this increase in intestinal permeability is questionable, however further research is warranted to understand the effect of iron supplementation on gut permeability in infants with normal iron status. In conclusion, a richly fortified complementary/replacement food did not benefit and may have worsened intestinal permeability. Further investigation into local interactions of key micronutrients with gut integrity, particularly in micronutrient-replete infants is needed.
The paper discusses the effect of vitamins C and E and Plantaglucide on nitroso compounds yield in the course of nitrosation of amines in human gastric juice. The study group included 56 subjects. The above drugs capable of inhibiting in vitro nitrosation produced an anomalous effect in gastric juice of some subjects, i.e. potentiated nitroso compounds yield in nitrosation of amines by sodium nitrite. The said action of vitamins C and E was apparent in dimethylamine and amidopyrine nitrosation but it was not in morpholine nitrosation. Sharply increased levels in nitroso compounds were observed in some mice fed precursors of nitroso compounds in combination with vitamin C and Plantaglucide. These data point to an anomalous effect of the drugs on the body.