Acute responses to sprint-interval and continuous exercise in adults with and without exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.
Journal of sports sciences. 2019;(2):212-220
The purpose was to compare the airway response to sprint interval exercise (SIE) and continuous exercise (CE) in active adults with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIBC), and to compare ventilatory and oxygen delivery responses between adults with and without EIBC. Adults with EIBC (n = 8, 22.3 ± 3.0 years) and adults without EIBC (n = 8, 22.3 ± 3.0 years) completed a SIE (4 × 30 s sprints separated by 4.5 min of active recovery) and CE (20 min at 65% peak power output) session. Lung function was assessed at baseline, during exercise, and up to 20 min post-exercise. Ventilatory parameters and tissue saturation index (TSI) were recorded continuously throughout the sessions. The decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s was similar following SIE (-8.6 ± 12.6%) and CE (-9.0 ± 9.3%) in adults with EIBC. There were no significant differences in any of the ventilatory parameters or in TSI during SIE or CE between those with and without EIBC. These findings suggest that SIE and CE affect airway responsiveness to a similar extent. Future research using a lower intensity CE protocol in an inactive sample of adults with EIBC is needed.
Feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a childcare-based intervention to reduce sitting time among pre-schoolers: A pilot randomised controlled trial.
Journal of sports sciences. 2019;(2):146-155
The aim of this study was to test the feasibility, acceptability and potential efficacy of a childcare-based intervention to reduce total and prolonged sitting time in pre-schoolers. Four centres and 115 pre-schoolers (44 % boys; 4.1y) participated in a 3-month, 2-arm pilot cluster randomised controlled trial. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed through observations and semi-structured interviews. Sitting time, and breaks and bouts of sitting during childcare were assessed using an activPAL accelerometer over a one-week period at pre- and post-test (12wks). EF (inhibition, working memory and shifting) was assessed using the Early Years Toolbox. Intervention fidelity was high for both intervention centres (77 % vs 70 %) and educators reacted positively to the intervention. Proportion of sitting time per day reduced significantly at post-test in both intervention (-5.3%/day,[2.13, 8.50]) and control centres (-6.45 %,[4.20, 8.71]), resulting in a non- significant between-group difference (p = 0.51[2.4, 4.9]). EF scores did not significantly differ between groups (p > 0.05). Modifications to the childcare environment to reducing sitting, particularly the standing workstations, were feasible and acceptable to educators and children. No differences in sitting time between groups were seen; additional changes and longer-term trials are needed to reduce sitting time in pre-schoolers.
Whole grain-rich diet reduces body weight and systemic low-grade inflammation without inducing major changes of the gut microbiome: a randomised cross-over trial.
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether a whole grain diet alters the gut microbiome and insulin sensitivity, as well as biomarkers of metabolic health and gut functionality. DESIGN 60 Danish adults at risk of developing metabolic syndrome were included in a randomised cross-over trial with two 8-week dietary intervention periods comprising whole grain diet and refined grain diet, separated by a washout period of ≥6 weeks. The response to the interventions on the gut microbiome composition and insulin sensitivity as well on measures of glucose and lipid metabolism, gut functionality, inflammatory markers, anthropometry and urine metabolomics were assessed. RESULTS 50 participants completed both periods with a whole grain intake of 179±50 g/day and 13±10 g/day in the whole grain and refined grain period, respectively. Compliance was confirmed by a difference in plasma alkylresorcinols (p<0.0001). Compared with refined grain, whole grain did not significantly alter glucose homeostasis and did not induce major changes in the faecal microbiome. Also, breath hydrogen levels, plasma short-chain fatty acids, intestinal integrity and intestinal transit time were not affected. The whole grain diet did, however, compared with the refined grain diet, decrease body weight (p<0.0001), serum inflammatory markers, interleukin (IL)-6 (p=0.009) and C-reactive protein (p=0.003). The reduction in body weight was consistent with a reduction in energy intake, and IL-6 reduction was associated with the amount of whole grain consumed, in particular with intake of rye. CONCLUSION Compared with refined grain diet, whole grain diet did not alter insulin sensitivity and gut microbiome but reduced body weight and systemic low-grade inflammation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER NCT01731366; Results.
A Randomized Study of Exercise and Fitness Trackers in Obese Patients After Total Knee Arthroplasty.
The Orthopedic clinics of North America. 2019;(1):35-45
Functional limitations persist in obese patients after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This study assessed the effect of an exercise program (EP) and fitness trackers (FT) in obese patients with TKA. Sixty patients 1 year after orthopedic surgery were recruited and received a 16-week tailored EP; half were randomized to receive an FT. FT had no measurable effect compared with EP alone. EP improved knee range of motion, strength, and quality-of-life scores. This study provides preliminary evidence that a 16-week EP in obese individuals 1 year post TKA is feasible and effective in improving function and quality of life.
Eccentric cycling is more efficient in reducing fat mass than concentric cycling in adolescents with obesity.
Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. 2019;(1):4-15
The benefits of eccentric (ECC) training on fat mass (FM) remain underexplored. We hypothesized that in obese adolescents, ECC cycling training is more efficient for decreasing whole-body FM percentage compared to concentric (CON) performed at the same oxygen consumption (VO2 ). Twenty-four adolescents aged 13.4 ± 1.3 years (BMI > 90th percentile) were randomized to ECC or CON. They performed three cyclo-ergometer sessions per week (30 min per session) for 12 weeks: two habituation, 5 at 50% VO2peak , and 5 at 70% VO2peak . Anthropometric measurements, body composition, maximal incremental CON tests, strength tests, and blood samples were assessed pre- and post-training. Whole-body FM percentage decreased significantly after compared to pretraining in both groups, though to a larger extent in the ECC group (ECC: -10% vs CON: -4.2%, P < 0.05). Whole-body lean mass (LM) percentage increased significantly in both groups after compared to pretraining, with a greater increase in the ECC group (ECC: 3.8% vs CON: 1.5%, P <0.05). The improvements in leg FM and LM percentages were greater in the ECC group (-6.5% and 3.0%, P = 0.01 and P < 0.01). Quadriceps isometric and isokinetic ECC strength increased significantly more in the ECC group (28.3% and 21.3%, P < 0.05). Both groups showed similar significant VO2peak improvement (ECC: 15.4% vs CON: 10.3%). The decrease in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index was significant in the ECC group (-19.9%). In conclusion, although both ECC and CON cycling trainings are efficient to decrease FM, ECC induces greater FM reduction, strength gains, and insulin resistance improvements and represents an optimal modality to recommend for obese adolescents.
Virtual reality exercise intradialysis to improve physical function: A feasibility randomized trial.
Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. 2019;(1):89-94
OBJECTIVE The main objective of this investigation was to assess feasibility of conducting a future RCT with an intradialysis non-immersive virtual reality exercise intervention. The secondary aim was to explore the impact of either conventional or VR exercise on physical function. DESIGN Feasibility randomized trial. PARTICIPANTS Eighteen subjects who participated in a 16-week intradialysis combined exercise program. INTERVENTIONS The program lasted four additional weeks of either combined exercise or virtual reality exercise. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Physical function was measured through several reliable tests (sit-to-stand-to-sit tests 10 and 60, gait speed, one-leg heel-rise tests, and 6-minute walk test) at baseline, after 16 weeks of intradialysis combined exercise and by the end of four additional weeks of exercise. Adherence to the exercise programs was registered. RESULTS There was a significant time effect, so that physical function improved in both groups. By the end of the 20 weeks, function improved as measured through the sit-to-stand-to-sit tests 10 and 60, gait speed, one-leg heel-rise left leg, and the 6-minute walk test. Changes that did not occur due to error in the test were seen after 20 weeks were achieved in the sit-to-stand-to-sit test 60, gait speed, one-leg heel-rise test for the left leg, and 6-minute walking test. CONCLUSION Virtual reality was a feasible intervention. Both interventions improved physical function. Adherence was not significantly different between groups.
Effects of high-intensity functional circuit training on motor function and sport motivation in healthy, inactive adults.
Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. 2019;(1):144-153
PURPOSE A small share of the world's population meets current physical activity guidelines, which recommend regular engagement in endurance, strength, and neuromotor exercise. As lack of time represents a major cause of inactivity, multidimensional training methods with short durations may provide a promising alternative to classical, volume-oriented approaches focusing on one biomotor ability. This trial examined the effects of a high-intensity functional circuit training (HIFCT) on motor performance and exercise motivation in untrained adults. METHODS Thirty-three inactive participants were randomly allocated to two groups exercising for six weeks. The intervention group (HIFCT, n = 20) 3×/week performed functional whole-body exercises in a circuit. Each 15-minute workout included repetitive 20s all-out bouts with 10s breaks. In the comparison group (moderate aerobic exercise, MAE, n = 13), the participants walked 3×/week for 50 minutes at moderate intensity. Measured motor outcomes were cycling endurance capacity (respiratory threshold, maximum workload), maximum strength (leg and chest press), postural control (force plate), and jump capacity (counter-movement jump, single leg hop for distance); exercise motivation was assessed using the self-concordance index. RESULTS In comparison with MAE, HIFCT enhanced maximum leg strength (between-group difference of relative pre- to post-changes of 5.0%), shoulder strength (7.6%), and endurance workload (5.0%; P < 0.05), while increasing motivation to exercise (+5.5 points, P < 0.05). No between-group differences occurred for postural control and jump capacity (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION Despite considerably shorter training duration, HIFCT enhances motor function and motivation to exercise more effectively than MAE. Further research should investigate the long-term adherence to the program and its effectiveness in other settings.
Prediction of Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Self-Reported Disability Following Lumbar Fusion Surgery.
World neurosurgery. 2019;:e77-e88
OBJECTIVE To investigate the predictive value of preoperative fear-avoidance factors (self-efficacy for exercise, pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, and depression), walking capacity, and traditional predictor variables for predicting postoperative changes in physical activity level and disability 6 months after lumbar fusion surgery in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP). METHODS We prospectively enrolled 118 patients scheduled for lumbar fusion surgery for motion-elicited chronic LBP with degenerative changes in 1-3 segments of the lumbar spine. Associations between the predictors and the dependent variables were investigated with multiple linear regression analysis. Dependent variables were physical activity level as objectively measured with a triaxial accelerometer and disability as measured with the Oswestry Disability Index. RESULTS Preoperative physical activity level (β = -0.349; P < 0.001) and self-efficacy for exercise (β = 0.176; P = 0.021) were significant predictors of the postoperative change in physical activity. Preoperative disability (β = -0.790; P < 0.001), self-efficacy for exercise (β = 0.152; P = 0.024), and pain catastrophizing (β = 0.383; P = 0.033) were significant predictors for the change in the Oswestry Disability Index. CONCLUSIONS Patients with low levels of preoperative physical activity were more likely to increase their level of physical activity after lumbar fusion surgery, especially when their self-efficacy for exercise was high. However, most of these patients still had low levels of physical activity after surgery, and they may therefore need extra support in increasing their postoperative physical activity levels.
Gastrointestinal microbiome modulator improves glucose tolerance in overweight and obese subjects: A randomized controlled pilot trial.
Journal of diabetes and its complications. 2019;29(8):1272-6
Plain language summary
There is an increasing need for nutraceuticals that promote satiety and address the adverse health consequences obesity. Recent evidence suggests that the gut microbiome may play an important role in regulating metabolic pathways involved in obesity, particularly those involved in insulin resistance. This study used a gastrointestinal microbiome modulator (GIMM) containing inulin, oat beta-glucan, blueberry anthocyanins and blueberry polyphenols to examine its effects on metabolic parameters, faecal markers of gut microbiota and satiety. Thirty overweight or obese individuals were randomised to either consume the GIMM or placebo tablet for four weeks. Stool and blood samples were collected at the baseline and end of the trial, and satiety was assessed weekly. This study showed that GIMM consumption significantly improved blood glucose tolerance and increased satiety in overweight and obese participants. Further cellular studies are warranted to identify the specific pathways by which GIMM improves glucose control.
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a gastrointestinal microbiome modulator (GIMM) containing inulin, β-glucan, blueberry anthocyanins, and blueberry polyphenols on metabolic parameters, fecal markers of gut microbiota, and satiety. DESIGN AND METHODS Thirty overweight or obese individuals aged 18 to 70years, were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. Participants consumed the test product or placebo daily for four weeks. Stool samples were collected and blood was drawn at baseline and week four for assessments of gut microbiota, satiety hormones, glucose control, and lipid measures. Subjective satiety was assessed weekly. Linear models were used to compare differences from baseline to week four. RESULTS GIMM consumption improved blood glucose tolerance (p=0.008), and increased satiety (p=0.03). There were no statistically significant differences in insulin sensitivity, fecal markers of gut microbiota, plasma satiety hormones, or serum lipid concentrations between the groups. However, plasma satiety hormones and fecal short chain fatty acid concentrations increased in the test group compared to the placebo. CONCLUSIONS GIMM consumption for four weeks, increases satiety, and improves glucose tolerance possibly through insulin-independent pathways.
Peripheral blood flow changes in response to postexercise cold water immersion.
Clinical physiology and functional imaging. 2018;(1):46-55
This study compared the effect of postexercise water immersion (WI) at different temperatures on common femoral artery blood flow (CFA), muscle (total haemoglobin; tHb) and skin perfusion (cutaneous vascular conductance; CVC), assessed by Doppler ultrasound, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and laser Doppler flowmetry, respectively. Given that heat stress may influence the vascular response during cooling, nine men cycled for 25 min at the first ventilatory threshold followed by intermittent 30-s cycling at 90% peak power until exhaustion at 32·8 ± 0·4°C and 32 ± 5% RH. They then received 5-min WI at 8·6 ± 0·2°C (WI9 ), 14·6 ± 0·3°C (WI15 ), 35·0 ± 0·4°C (WI35 ) or passive rest (CON) in a randomized, crossover manner. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), muscle (Tmu ), thigh skin (Tthigh ), rectal (Tre ) and mean body (Tbody ) temperatures were assessed. At 60 min postimmersion, decreases in Tre after WI35 (-0·6 ± 0·3°C) and CON (-0·6 ± 0·3°C) were different from WI15 (-1·0 ± 0·3°C; P<0·05), but not from WI9 (-1·0 ± 0·3°C; P = 0·074-0·092). WI9 and WI15 had reduced Tbody , Tthigh and Tmu compared with WI35 and CON (P <0·05). CFA, tHb and CVC were lower in WI9 and WI15 compared with CON (P<0·05). tHb following WI9 remained lower than CON (P = 0·044) at 30 min postimmersion. CVC correlated with tHb during non-cooling (WI35 and CON) (r2 = 0·532; P<0·001) and cooling recovery (WI9 and WI15 ) (r2 = 0·19; P = 0·035). WI9 resulted in prolonged reduction in muscle perfusion. This suggests that CWI below 10°C should not be used for short-term (i.e. <60 min) recovery after exercise.