Joint-Level Analyses of the Back Squat With and Without Intraset Rest.
International journal of sports physiology and performance. 2019;(5):583-589
Purpose: To provide a joint-level analysis of traditional (TS) and cluster (CS) set structure during the back-squat exercise. Methods: Eight men (24  y, 177.3 [7.9] cm, 82.7 [11.0] kg, 11.9 [3.5] % body fat, and 150.3 [23.0] kg 1-repetition maximum [1RM]) performed the back-squat exercise (80%1RM) using TS (4 × 6, 2-min interset rest) and CS (4 × [2 × 3], 30-s intraset rest, 90-s interset rest), randomly. Lower-limb kinematics were collected by motion capture, as well as kinetic data by bilateral force platforms. Results: CS attenuated the loss in mean power (TS -21.6% [3.9%]; CS -12.4% [7.5%]; P = .042), although no differences in gross movement pattern (sagittal-plane joint angles) within and between conditions were observed (P ≥ .05). However, joint power produced at the hip increased from repetition (REP) 1 through REP 6 during TS, while a decrease was noted at the knee. A similar pattern was observed in the CS condition but was limited to the hip. Joint power produced at the hip increased from REP 1 through REP 3 but returned to REP 1 values before a similar increase through REP 6, resulting in differences between conditions (REP 4, P = .018; REP 5, P = .022). Conclusions: Sagittal-plane joint angles did not change in either condition, although CS elicited greater power. Differing joint power contributions (hip and knee) suggest potential central mechanism that may contribute to enhanced power output during CS and warrant further study. Practitioners should consider incorporating CS into training to promote greater power adaptations and to mitigate fatigue.
Effect of Stride Management Assist Gait Training for Poststroke Hemiplegia: A Single Center, Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial.
Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association. 2019;(2):477-486
BACKGROUND Poststroke gait disorders negatively impact activities of daily living. Rehabilitation for stroke patients is aimed at improving their walking ability, balance, and quality of life. Robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) is associated with an increased number of task-specific exercises, which may benefit poststroke motor learning. We investigated the effects of RAGT using Stride Management Assist (SMA, which increases walk ratio by inducing hip-joint flexion and extension) in subacute stroke patients with hemiplegia. METHODS We conducted a single center, open-label randomized controlled trial in hemiplegia patients who experienced a first ever stroke and were admitted to the convalescent rehabilitation ward. A total of 41 were divided into the control (20 patients) and experimental group (21 patients). A 10-day, conventional gait training program was carried out for the control group; and RAGT with SMA was used for the experimental group. The maximum walking speed and other gait parameters were compared preintervention and postintervention. The intergroup differences in the improvement ratio were compared using an intention-to-treat analysis. RESULTS Ten-day intervention was completed by 36 patients. There was no difference between the 2 groups regarding gait parameters at intervention initiation. The improvement ratio of the maximum walking speed was significantly higher for the experimental group. Significant improvements were observed postintervention for maximum walking speed, paralysis-side step length, symmetry, and cadence in the experimental group. No adverse events attributable to the SMA were observed. CONCLUSIONS Ten days of RAGT with the SMA was effective for improving gait disorders of subacute stroke patients.
Investigating the mechanisms of acupuncture on neural excitability in healthy adults.
Acupuncture is gaining interest as a potential treatment modality for various neurological conditions. Yet, the underlying mechanisms and efficacy on brain function are not well understood. Therefore, this study investigated the previously proposed hypothesis that acupuncture suppresses motor cortex excitability using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy adults. The study was randomised, sham-controlled, and double-blinded. Single and paired-pulse TMS was delivered before, during, immediately after, and 30 min after removal of the needle. Acupuncture to the right Hegu acupoint (LI-4) of the hand was delivered by an experienced acupuncturist using standardised manipulations. A disposable (0.22×30 mm, Hwato) needle was used for verum stimulation (penetrating) and a Park retractable needle for sham (nonpenetrating). The peak-to-peak amplitude of TMS-induced motor-evoked potentials was recorded from two intrinsic hand muscles. Needling sensations were quantified using the Massachusett's acupuncture sensation scale. Participant needling sensations were not different between verum or sham acupuncture (P>0.54). Corticomotor excitability, intracortical inhibition, and intracortical facilitation were not modulated by verum or sham acupuncture during, immediately after, or 30 min after, recorded from a local or distant hand muscle to the needling site (all P>0.075). Contrary to previous studies, manual acupuncture did not affect motor cortex excitability in healthy adults. Because of the increasing popularity of acupuncture therapy, further research using patient populations should be considered.
Perceived stress mediates the relationship between mindfulness and negative affect variability: A randomized controlled trial among middle-aged to older adults.
Stress and health : journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress. 2019;(1):89-97
Despite the interest in mindfulness over the past 20 years, studies have only recently begun to examine mindfulness in older adults. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate pretreatment to post-treatment change in negative affect variability (NAV) following a mindfulness training among 134 mildly stressed, middle-aged to older adults. The secondary aim was to assess if the effects of mindfulness training on NAV would be partially explained by pretreatment to post-treatment reductions in perceived stress, a trend that would be congruent with several stress models. In this randomized control trial, participants were assigned to either a 6-week mindfulness meditation training programme or to a wait list control. Ecological momentary assessment, a data capturing technique that queries about present moment experiences in real time, captured NAV. Mixed-model ANOVAs and a path analysis were conducted. Participants in the mindfulness meditation training significantly reduced NAV when compared with wait list control participants. Further, there was a significant indirect group effect on reductions in NAV through change in perceived stress. Few studies have tested mechanisms of action, which connect changes that occur during mindfulness training with psychological outcomes in older adults. Understanding the mechanisms by which mindfulness enhances well-being may optimize interventions.
High intensity interval training protects the heart during increased metabolic demand in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial.
Acta diabetologica. 2019;(3):321-329
AIM: The present study assessed the effect of high intensity interval training on cardiac function during prolonged submaximal exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS Twenty-six patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to a 12 week of high intensity interval training (3 sessions/week) or standard care control group. All patients underwent prolonged (i.e. 60 min) submaximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (at 50% of previously assess maximal functional capacity) with non-invasive gas-exchange and haemodynamic measurements including cardiac output and stroke volume before and after the intervention. RESULTS At baseline (prior to intervention) there was no significant difference between the intervention and control group in peak exercise oxygen consumption (20.3 ± 6.1 vs. 21.7 ± 5.5 ml/kg/min, p = 0.21), and peak exercise heart rate (156.3 ± 15.0 vs. 153.8 ± 12.5 beats/min, p = 0.28). During follow-up assessment both groups utilized similar amount of oxygen during prolonged submaximal exercise (15.0 ± 2.4 vs. 15.2 ± 2.2 ml/min/kg, p = 0.71). However, cardiac function i.e. cardiac output during submaximal exercise decreased significantly by 21% in exercise group (16.2 ± 2.7-12.8 ± 3.6 L/min, p = 0.03), but not in the control group (15.7 ± 4.9-16.3 ± 4.1 L/min, p = 0.12). Reduction in exercise cardiac output observed in the exercise group was due to a significant decrease in stroke volume by 13% (p = 0.03) and heart rate by 9% (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION Following high intensity interval training patients with type 2 diabetes demonstrate reduced cardiac output during prolonged submaximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Ability of patients to maintain prolonged increased metabolic demand but with reduced cardiac output suggests cardiac protective role of high intensity interval training in type 2 diabetes. TRIAL REGISTRATION ISRCTN78698481. Registered 23 January 2013, retrospectively registered.
The immediate effects of breathing with oscillated inspiratory and expiratory airflows on secretion clearance in intubated patients with cervical spinal cord injury.
Spinal cord. 2019;(4):308-316
STUDY DESIGN A prospective, randomized crossover trial. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy of the combination of incentive spirometry with oscillation (OIS) and positive expiratory pressure with oscillation (OPEP) to promote secretion clearance in intubated patients with cervical spinal cord injury. SETTING Spinal cord unit, tertiary care hospital, North East Thailand. METHODS Thirteen intubated patients (C4-7, AIS score C) with secretion retention performed three interventions randomly allocated on consecutive days, a Sham deep breathing, OPEP and OPEP + OIS breathing exercise. Secretions were collected by sterile suction for 3 h before, and 3 h after, each intervention and wet weight recorded. Cardiopulmonary parameters were measured before and after each intervention. RESULTS The median (IQR) secretion wet weight pre-intervention was 2.61 g (2.21, 3.85) and in the 3 h after Sham there was an increase of 1.97 g (0.6, 3.6). The increase after OPEP was 2.67 g (1.7, 3.9) and after OPEP + OIS, 4.28 g (2.4, 6.7); all the increases being significant (p ≤ 0.007). The clearance after OPEP and OPEP + OIS were both greater than Sham while OPEP + OIS was greater than OPEP (p ≤ 0.019). There were no significant changes in cardiopulmonary measures following any intervention or when compared between interventions. CONCLUSIONS Deep breathing with an oscillated and humidified air flow in a combination of OIS + OPEP more than doubled secretion clearance and was more effective than OPEP or Sham deep breathing. There were no adverse effects of the procedures which were well tolerated by the patients and may be used to complement existing methods for secretion clearance.
Acute adaptations and subsequent preservation of strength and speed measures following a Nordic hamstring curl intervention: a randomised controlled trial.
Journal of sports sciences. 2019;(8):911-920
This randomised controlled trial investigated changes in eccentric hamstring strength, 10m sprint speed, and change-of-direction (COD) performance immediately post Nordic hamstring curl (NHC) intervention and following a 3-week detraining period. Fourteen male team sports athletes were randomised to a do-as-usual control group (CG; n = 7) or to a NHC intervention group (NHC; n = 7). Isokinetic dynamometry at 180°/s evaluated eccentric hamstring strength immediately post-intervention as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes included 10 m sprint time and COD. Each outcome was measured, pre, immediately post-intervention and following a 3-week detraining period. Immediately post-intervention significant group differences were observed in the NHC group for eccentric hamstring strength (31.81 Nm-1 vs. 6.44 Nm-1, P = 0.001), COD (-0.12 s vs. 0.20 s; P = 0.003) and sprint (- 0.06 s vs. 0.05 s; P = 0.024) performance. Performance improvements were maintained following a detraining period for COD (-0.11 s vs. 0.20 s; P = 0.014) and sprint (-0.05 s vs. 0.03 s, P = 0.031) but not eccentric hamstring strength (15.67 Nm-1 vs. 6.44 Nm-1, P = 0.145) These findings have important implications for training programmes designed to reduce hamstring injury incidence, whilst enhancing physical qualities critical to sport.
Afternoon exercise is more efficacious than morning exercise at improving blood glucose levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a randomised crossover trial.
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Exercise is recommended for the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes. However, the most effective time of day to achieve beneficial effects on health remains unknown. We aimed to determine whether exercise training at two distinct times of day would have differing effects on 24 h blood glucose levels in men with type 2 diabetes. METHODS Eleven men with type 2 diabetes underwent a randomised crossover trial. Inclusion criteria were 45-68 years of age and BMI between 23 and 33 kg/m2. Exclusion criteria were insulin treatment and presence of another systemic illness. Researchers were not blinded to the group assignment. The trial involved 2 weeks of either morning or afternoon high-intensity interval training (HIIT) (three sessions/week), followed by a 2 week wash-out period and a subsequent period of the opposite training regimen. Continuous glucose monitor (CGM)-based data were obtained. RESULTS Morning HIIT increased CGM-based glucose concentration (6.9 ± 0.4 mmol/l; mean ± SEM for the exercise days during week 1) compared with either the pre-training period (6.4 ± 0.3 mmol/l) or afternoon HIIT (6.2 ± 0.3 mmol/l for the exercise days during week 1). Conversely, afternoon HIIT reduced the CGM-based glucose concentration compared with either the pre-training period or morning HIIT. Afternoon HIIT was associated with elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; 1.9 ± 0.2 mU/l) and reduced T4 (15.8 ± 0.7 pmol/l) concentrations compared with pre-training (1.4 ± 0.2 mU/l for TSH; 16.8 ± 0.6 pmol/l for T4). TSH was also elevated after morning HIIT (1.7 ± 0.2 mU/l), whereas T4 concentrations were unaltered. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION Afternoon HIIT was more efficacious than morning HIIT at improving blood glucose in men with type 2 diabetes. Strikingly, morning HIIT had an acute, deleterious effect, increasing blood glucose. However, studies of longer training regimens are warranted to establish the persistence of this adverse effect. Our data highlight the importance of optimising the timing of exercise when prescribing it as treatment for type 2 diabetes.
Beneficial effects of acute high-intensity exercise on electrophysiological indices of attention processes in young adult men.
Behavioural brain research. 2019;:474-484
BACKGROUND Emerging research suggests that a single bout of aerobic exercise can improve cognition, brain function and psychological health. Our aim was to examine the effects of high-intensity exercise on cognitive-performance and brain measures of attention, inhibition and performance-monitoring across a test-battery of three cognitive tasks. METHOD Using a randomised cross-over design, 29 young men completed three successive cognitive tasks (Cued Continuous Performance Task [CPT-OX]; Eriksen Flanker Task; four-choice reaction-time task [Fast Task]) with simultaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) recording before and after a 20-min high-intensity cycling exercise and resting control session. Cognitive-performance measures, EEG power and event-related potential measures, were obtained during the tasks. Random-intercept linear models were used to investigate the effects of exercise, compared to rest, on outcomes. RESULTS A single bout of exercise significantly (p < 0.05) increased the amplitude of the event-related potential Go P3, but had no effect on the contingent negative variation (CNV), Cue P3 or NoGo P3, during the CPT-OX. Delta power, recorded during the CPT-OX, also significantly increased after exercise, whereas there was no effect on cognitive-performance in this task. Exercise did not influence any cognitive-performance or brain measures in the subsequent Flanker or Fast Tasks. CONCLUSION Acute high-intensity exercise improves brain-indices reflecting executive and sustained attention during task performance (Go P3 and delta activity), in the CPT-OX, but not anticipatory attention (Cue P3 and CNV) or response inhibition (NoGo P3) in young-adult men. Exercise had no effect on cognitive-performance or brain measures in the subsequent Flanker and Fast tasks, which may potentially be explained by the time delay after exercise.
Home and neighbourhood built environment features in family-based treatment for childhood obesity.
Pediatric obesity. 2019;(3):e12477
BACKGROUND Family-based behavioural weight loss treatment (FBT) for childhood obesity helps families develop strategies to facilitate healthy choices in their home and other environments (e.g. home neighbourhood). The current study examines how the home food environment, both pre-FBT and post-FBT, and the neighbourhoods in which families live are associated with child weight and weight-related outcomes in FBT. METHODS Parent-child dyads (n = 181) completed a 16-session FBT programme and completed home environment, anthropometric and child dietary/activity assessments at pre-FBT and post-FBT. Parents reported on availability of food, electronics and physical activity equipment in the home. The neighbourhood food and recreation environments around each dyad's residence was characterized using existing data within a geographic information system. RESULTS Families successfully made healthy home environment modifications during FBT. Regression models showed reducing RED (e.g. high-energy-dense and low-nutrient-dense) foods and electronics in the home during FBT had positive effects on child weight and weight-related outcomes. No neighbourhood food or recreation environment variables were significantly related to outcomes, although having a larger density of public recreation spaces was associated with increases in physical activity at the trend-level. CONCLUSIONS Modifying the home environment, specifically reducing RED foods and electronics, may be particularly important for FBT success.