Acute responses to sprint-interval and continuous exercise in adults with and without exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.
Journal of sports sciences. 2019;(2):212-220
The purpose was to compare the airway response to sprint interval exercise (SIE) and continuous exercise (CE) in active adults with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIBC), and to compare ventilatory and oxygen delivery responses between adults with and without EIBC. Adults with EIBC (n = 8, 22.3 ± 3.0 years) and adults without EIBC (n = 8, 22.3 ± 3.0 years) completed a SIE (4 × 30 s sprints separated by 4.5 min of active recovery) and CE (20 min at 65% peak power output) session. Lung function was assessed at baseline, during exercise, and up to 20 min post-exercise. Ventilatory parameters and tissue saturation index (TSI) were recorded continuously throughout the sessions. The decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s was similar following SIE (-8.6 ± 12.6%) and CE (-9.0 ± 9.3%) in adults with EIBC. There were no significant differences in any of the ventilatory parameters or in TSI during SIE or CE between those with and without EIBC. These findings suggest that SIE and CE affect airway responsiveness to a similar extent. Future research using a lower intensity CE protocol in an inactive sample of adults with EIBC is needed.
Feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a childcare-based intervention to reduce sitting time among pre-schoolers: A pilot randomised controlled trial.
Journal of sports sciences. 2019;(2):146-155
The aim of this study was to test the feasibility, acceptability and potential efficacy of a childcare-based intervention to reduce total and prolonged sitting time in pre-schoolers. Four centres and 115 pre-schoolers (44 % boys; 4.1y) participated in a 3-month, 2-arm pilot cluster randomised controlled trial. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed through observations and semi-structured interviews. Sitting time, and breaks and bouts of sitting during childcare were assessed using an activPAL accelerometer over a one-week period at pre- and post-test (12wks). EF (inhibition, working memory and shifting) was assessed using the Early Years Toolbox. Intervention fidelity was high for both intervention centres (77 % vs 70 %) and educators reacted positively to the intervention. Proportion of sitting time per day reduced significantly at post-test in both intervention (-5.3%/day,[2.13, 8.50]) and control centres (-6.45 %,[4.20, 8.71]), resulting in a non- significant between-group difference (p = 0.51[2.4, 4.9]). EF scores did not significantly differ between groups (p > 0.05). Modifications to the childcare environment to reducing sitting, particularly the standing workstations, were feasible and acceptable to educators and children. No differences in sitting time between groups were seen; additional changes and longer-term trials are needed to reduce sitting time in pre-schoolers.
Whole grain-rich diet reduces body weight and systemic low-grade inflammation without inducing major changes of the gut microbiome: a randomised cross-over trial.
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether a whole grain diet alters the gut microbiome and insulin sensitivity, as well as biomarkers of metabolic health and gut functionality. DESIGN 60 Danish adults at risk of developing metabolic syndrome were included in a randomised cross-over trial with two 8-week dietary intervention periods comprising whole grain diet and refined grain diet, separated by a washout period of ≥6 weeks. The response to the interventions on the gut microbiome composition and insulin sensitivity as well on measures of glucose and lipid metabolism, gut functionality, inflammatory markers, anthropometry and urine metabolomics were assessed. RESULTS 50 participants completed both periods with a whole grain intake of 179±50 g/day and 13±10 g/day in the whole grain and refined grain period, respectively. Compliance was confirmed by a difference in plasma alkylresorcinols (p<0.0001). Compared with refined grain, whole grain did not significantly alter glucose homeostasis and did not induce major changes in the faecal microbiome. Also, breath hydrogen levels, plasma short-chain fatty acids, intestinal integrity and intestinal transit time were not affected. The whole grain diet did, however, compared with the refined grain diet, decrease body weight (p<0.0001), serum inflammatory markers, interleukin (IL)-6 (p=0.009) and C-reactive protein (p=0.003). The reduction in body weight was consistent with a reduction in energy intake, and IL-6 reduction was associated with the amount of whole grain consumed, in particular with intake of rye. CONCLUSION Compared with refined grain diet, whole grain diet did not alter insulin sensitivity and gut microbiome but reduced body weight and systemic low-grade inflammation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER NCT01731366; Results.
A Randomized Study of Exercise and Fitness Trackers in Obese Patients After Total Knee Arthroplasty.
The Orthopedic clinics of North America. 2019;(1):35-45
Functional limitations persist in obese patients after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This study assessed the effect of an exercise program (EP) and fitness trackers (FT) in obese patients with TKA. Sixty patients 1 year after orthopedic surgery were recruited and received a 16-week tailored EP; half were randomized to receive an FT. FT had no measurable effect compared with EP alone. EP improved knee range of motion, strength, and quality-of-life scores. This study provides preliminary evidence that a 16-week EP in obese individuals 1 year post TKA is feasible and effective in improving function and quality of life.
Eccentric cycling is more efficient in reducing fat mass than concentric cycling in adolescents with obesity.
Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. 2019;(1):4-15
The benefits of eccentric (ECC) training on fat mass (FM) remain underexplored. We hypothesized that in obese adolescents, ECC cycling training is more efficient for decreasing whole-body FM percentage compared to concentric (CON) performed at the same oxygen consumption (VO2 ). Twenty-four adolescents aged 13.4 ± 1.3 years (BMI > 90th percentile) were randomized to ECC or CON. They performed three cyclo-ergometer sessions per week (30 min per session) for 12 weeks: two habituation, 5 at 50% VO2peak , and 5 at 70% VO2peak . Anthropometric measurements, body composition, maximal incremental CON tests, strength tests, and blood samples were assessed pre- and post-training. Whole-body FM percentage decreased significantly after compared to pretraining in both groups, though to a larger extent in the ECC group (ECC: -10% vs CON: -4.2%, P < 0.05). Whole-body lean mass (LM) percentage increased significantly in both groups after compared to pretraining, with a greater increase in the ECC group (ECC: 3.8% vs CON: 1.5%, P <0.05). The improvements in leg FM and LM percentages were greater in the ECC group (-6.5% and 3.0%, P = 0.01 and P < 0.01). Quadriceps isometric and isokinetic ECC strength increased significantly more in the ECC group (28.3% and 21.3%, P < 0.05). Both groups showed similar significant VO2peak improvement (ECC: 15.4% vs CON: 10.3%). The decrease in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index was significant in the ECC group (-19.9%). In conclusion, although both ECC and CON cycling trainings are efficient to decrease FM, ECC induces greater FM reduction, strength gains, and insulin resistance improvements and represents an optimal modality to recommend for obese adolescents.
Virtual reality exercise intradialysis to improve physical function: A feasibility randomized trial.
Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. 2019;(1):89-94
OBJECTIVE The main objective of this investigation was to assess feasibility of conducting a future RCT with an intradialysis non-immersive virtual reality exercise intervention. The secondary aim was to explore the impact of either conventional or VR exercise on physical function. DESIGN Feasibility randomized trial. PARTICIPANTS Eighteen subjects who participated in a 16-week intradialysis combined exercise program. INTERVENTIONS The program lasted four additional weeks of either combined exercise or virtual reality exercise. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Physical function was measured through several reliable tests (sit-to-stand-to-sit tests 10 and 60, gait speed, one-leg heel-rise tests, and 6-minute walk test) at baseline, after 16 weeks of intradialysis combined exercise and by the end of four additional weeks of exercise. Adherence to the exercise programs was registered. RESULTS There was a significant time effect, so that physical function improved in both groups. By the end of the 20 weeks, function improved as measured through the sit-to-stand-to-sit tests 10 and 60, gait speed, one-leg heel-rise left leg, and the 6-minute walk test. Changes that did not occur due to error in the test were seen after 20 weeks were achieved in the sit-to-stand-to-sit test 60, gait speed, one-leg heel-rise test for the left leg, and 6-minute walking test. CONCLUSION Virtual reality was a feasible intervention. Both interventions improved physical function. Adherence was not significantly different between groups.
Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Reverses Severe Dyspnea Associated with Acceleration-dependent Left Bundle Branch Block in a Patient with Structurally Normal Heart.
Journal of cardiovascular electrophysiology. 2019
A 55-year-old woman presented with severe dyspnea during acceleration-dependent LBBB. Metoprolol initially ameliorated symptoms by preventing the heart rate at which LBBB occurred. Over time LBBB presented at slower heart rates and the patient developed recurrent dyspnea during activity that correlated with the development of LBBB on event monitors and exercise stress testing. A biventricular pacemaker was implanted, and the patient 's symptoms remain resolved after a follow-up of over 4 years. More research is needed to define the use of cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with normal heart function. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Delayed presentation of iatrogenic ventriculoperitoneal shunt transection following laparoscopic weight loss surgery in a patient with idiopathic intracranial hypertension.
Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. 2019;(1):e5-e7
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is strongly associated with central obesity and consequential raised intra-abdominal pressure. If left untreated it poses significant risk to vision and can eventually cause blindness. Owing to its pathophysiology, this condition is managed by both medical and surgical specialities. When medical management fails neurosurgeons commonly treat idiopathic intracranial hypertension by permanent cerebrospinal fluid peritoneal shunting. Weight reduction surgery provides patients who are obese with a multitude of benefits and it is not uncommon for the general surgeon to be presented with a patient with idiopathic intracranial hypertension and a cerebrospinal fluid peritoneal shunt in place. This provides a potential challenging situation in weight-loss surgical procedures. We describe an interesting case where laparoscopic bariatric surgery resulted in transection of the abdominal catheter with a delayed presentation of recurrent symptoms and an abdominal cerebrospinal fluid collection in a patient with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. We discuss how this could be avoided and its management.
Effects of high-intensity functional circuit training on motor function and sport motivation in healthy, inactive adults.
Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. 2019;(1):144-153
PURPOSE A small share of the world's population meets current physical activity guidelines, which recommend regular engagement in endurance, strength, and neuromotor exercise. As lack of time represents a major cause of inactivity, multidimensional training methods with short durations may provide a promising alternative to classical, volume-oriented approaches focusing on one biomotor ability. This trial examined the effects of a high-intensity functional circuit training (HIFCT) on motor performance and exercise motivation in untrained adults. METHODS Thirty-three inactive participants were randomly allocated to two groups exercising for six weeks. The intervention group (HIFCT, n = 20) 3×/week performed functional whole-body exercises in a circuit. Each 15-minute workout included repetitive 20s all-out bouts with 10s breaks. In the comparison group (moderate aerobic exercise, MAE, n = 13), the participants walked 3×/week for 50 minutes at moderate intensity. Measured motor outcomes were cycling endurance capacity (respiratory threshold, maximum workload), maximum strength (leg and chest press), postural control (force plate), and jump capacity (counter-movement jump, single leg hop for distance); exercise motivation was assessed using the self-concordance index. RESULTS In comparison with MAE, HIFCT enhanced maximum leg strength (between-group difference of relative pre- to post-changes of 5.0%), shoulder strength (7.6%), and endurance workload (5.0%; P < 0.05), while increasing motivation to exercise (+5.5 points, P < 0.05). No between-group differences occurred for postural control and jump capacity (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION Despite considerably shorter training duration, HIFCT enhances motor function and motivation to exercise more effectively than MAE. Further research should investigate the long-term adherence to the program and its effectiveness in other settings.
Differences in pulmonary and extra-pulmonary characteristics in severely versus non-severely fatigued recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a cross-sectional, comparative study.
Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 2019;(1):112-122
OBJECTIVES Fatigue is a common symptom in allogeneic-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allogeneic-HSCT) recipients. However, effects of severe fatigue on pulmonary functions, blood cells, dyspnea, muscle strength, exercise capacity, depression and quality of life (QOL) in allogeneic-HSCT recipients are still unknown. Therefore, to compare pulmonary functions, blood levels, dyspnea, muscle strength, exercise capacity, depression, and QOL between allogeneic-HSCT recipients according to fatigue severity and to determine predictors of severe fatigue were aimed in the current study. METHODS Twenty-four severe-fatigued (Fatigue Severity Scale score ≥36) (40.08 ± 12.44years) and 25 non-severe-fatigued (36.20 ± 13.73years) allogeneic-HSCT recipients were compared. Blood levels, pulmonary functions (spirometer), dyspnea (Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea scale), exercise capacity (6-minute walk test), depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II), QOL (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QOL Questionnaire), respiratory (mouth pressure device) and peripheral muscle strength (dynamometer) were evaluated. RESULTS Symptom QOL-subscale and depression scores were significantly higher; peripheral muscle strength, global health status, and functional QOL-subscales scores were lower in severe-fatigued recipients (p < 0.05) whose exercise capacity was clinically (28.85 m) decreased. Blood levels, pulmonary functions, dyspnea, and respiratory muscle strength were similar in groups (p > 0.05). 42.4% of the variance in severe fatigue was explained by symptom QOL-subscale score and corticosteroid use after HSCT (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Impairments in peripheral muscle strength, QOL, exercise capacity, and depression are more prevalent among severe-fatigued recipients. Moreover, poorer QOL and corticosteroid use after HSCT are most important predictors of severe fatigue. Effects of comprehensive exercise programs and psychosocial support for severe-fatigued recipients in late post-engraftment period should be investigated.