Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation During Pregnancy on Birth Size: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
Plain language summary
Vitamin D deficiency may affect mother and neonatal outcomes, increasing the risk of pregnancy complications, preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), and poor offspring health. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluates the effects of oral vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on foetal growth and incidence of LBW and SGA births. 13 randomised controlled trials (RCTs), published between 1980 and 2016, were included in the meta-analysis, including in total 2016 newborns (1184 from mothers in the intervention groups and 832 from controls). Dosages ranged from 200-4000 IU for daily intakes and 35000 IU to 600000 IU for single or intermittent administration. Whilst there was no evidence for publication bias (e.g. an over-reporting of positive outcomes), overall, the quality of the reviewed studies varied from very low (head circumference) to moderate (birth weight, birth length, LBW, and SGA). All studies evaluating the effect of vitamin D supplementation on blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (OHD) levels showed that intervention significantly increased 25-OHD concentration in both mothers and infants. The meta-analysis showed that vitamin D supplementation significantly increased birth weight and length, independent of dosage and whether vitamin D was administered daily or in single/intermittent high dosages. Head circumference was increased in a non-dose dependent way with daily but not with single/intermittent vitamin D supplementation. Effects on all three parameters were seen when vitamin D was supplemented alone, but not in combination with other nutrients. Both, risk of LBW and SGA, were also significantly reduced with vitamin D supplementation.
During pregnancy, vitamin D supplementation may be a feasible strategy to help prevent low birthweight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA) births. However, evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is inconclusive, probably due to heterogeneity in study design and type of intervention. A systematic literature search in the PubMed-Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases was carried out to evaluate the effects of oral vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on birthweight, birth length, head circumference, LBW, and SGA. The fixed-effects or random-effects models were used to calculate mean difference (MD), risk ratio (RR), and 95% Confidence Interval (CI). On a total of 13 RCTs, maternal vitamin D supplementation had a positive effect on birthweight (12 RCTs; MD = 103.17 g, 95% CI 62.29⁻144.04 g), length (6 RCTs; MD = 0.22 cm, 95% CI 0.11⁻0.33 cm), and head circumference (6 RCTs; MD:0.19 cm, 95% CI 0.13⁻0.24 cm). In line with these findings, we also demonstrated that maternal vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of LBW (3 RCTs; RR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.22⁻0.74) and SGA (5 RCTS; RR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.51⁻0.92). The present systematic review and meta-analysis confirmed the well-established effect of maternal vitamin D supplementation on birth size. However, further research is required to better define risks and benefits associated with such interventions and the potential implications for public health.
Personalised Prehabilitation in High-risk Patients Undergoing Elective Major Abdominal Surgery: A Randomized Blinded Controlled Trial.
Annals of surgery. 2018;(1):50-56
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to assess the impact of personalized prehabilitation on postoperative complications in high-risk patients undergoing elective major abdominal surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Prehabilitation, including endurance exercise training and promotion of physical activity, in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery has been postulated as an effective preventive intervention to reduce postoperative complications. However, the existing studies provide controversial results and show a clear bias toward low-risk patients. METHODS This was a randomized blinded controlled trial. Eligible candidates accepting to participate were blindly randomized (1:1 ratio) to control (standard care) or intervention (standard care + prehabilitation) groups. Inclusion criteria were: i) age >70 years; and/or, ii) American Society of Anesthesiologists score III/IV. Prehabilitation covered 3 actions: i) motivational interview; ii) high-intensity endurance training; and promotion of physical activity. The main study outcome was the proportion of patients suffering postoperative complications. Secondary outcomes included the endurance time (ET) during cycle-ergometer exercise. RESULTS We randomized 71 patients to the control arm and 73 to intervention. After excluding 19 patients because of changes in the surgical plan, 63 controls and 62 intervention patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. The intervention group enhanced aerobic capacity [ΔET 135 (218) %; P < 0.001), reduced the number of patients with postoperative complications by 51% (relative risk 0.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.3-0.8; P = 0.001) and the rate of complications [1.4 (1.6) and 0.5 (1.0) (P = 0.001)] as compared with controls. CONCLUSION Prehabilitation enhanced postoperative clinical outcomes in high-risk candidates for elective major abdominal surgery, which can be explained by the increased aerobic capacity.
Different dyspnoea perception in COPD patients with frequent and infrequent exacerbations.
BACKGROUND Some patients with COPD report frequent acute exacerbations (AECOPD) of the disease (FE), whereas others suffer them infrequently (IE). Because the current diagnosis of exacerbation relies on patient's perception of increased symptoms (mostly dyspnoea), we hypothesised that dyspnoea perception might be different in COPD patients with FE (≥2 exacerbations or 1 hospitalisation due to AECOPD in the previous year) or IE (≤1 exacerbation in the previous year), AECOPD being defined by the institution antibiotics and/or steroids treatment, or hospital admission. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that dyspnoea perception is increased in FE and/or decreased in IE with COPD. METHODS We compared the perception of dyspnoea (Borg scale), mouth occlusion pressure 0.1 s after the onset of inspiration (P0.1) and ventilatory response to hypercapnia (ΔVE/ΔPETCO2) in 34 clinically stable COPD patients with FE (n=14) or IE (n=20), with similar age, gender, body mass index and degree of airflow limitation. As a reference, we studied a group of age-matched healthy volunteers (n=10) with normal spirometry. RESULTS At rest, P0.1 was higher in FE than IE and controls (p<0.01). Compared with controls, the ventilatory response to hypercapnia was equally blunted both in FE and IE (p<0.001). Despite similar spirometry, during rebreathing peak Borg score and ΔBorg were higher (p<0.01) in FE and lower (p<0.01) in IE, than in controls. CONCLUSIONS Dyspnoea perception during CO2 rebreathing is enhanced in FE and blunted in IE. These differences may contribute to the differential rate of reported exacerbations in FE and IE. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER NCT02113839.
Non-anaemic iron deficiency impairs response to pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD.
Respirology (Carlton, Vic.). 2015;(7):1089-95
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Non-anaemic iron deficiency (NAID) might alter the oxygen pathway in health and disease. The current study aims at assessing the impact of NAID on aerobic capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS A prospective sample of 70 non-anaemic COPD patients candidate to participate in an 8-week pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programme was studied. Incremental cycling exercise to peak oxygen uptake (V'O2peak ) and constant work-rate exercise at 80% V'O2peak to exhaustion were assessed pre- and post-PR. Training-induced increase of endurance time (ET) ≥33%, which represented the minimal clinically important difference, classified patients as responders to exercise training. RESULTS The prevalence of NAID was 48% (n = 34) showing no relationship with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages (P = 0.209). Patients with NAID showed lower pre-training ET (P = 0.033) and V'O2peak (P = 0.007) than normal iron status (NIS) patients after adjustment for potential covariates. Significant training-induced physiological changes were seen in the NIS group (ΔV'O2peak 68(132) mL/min; P = 0.009), but not in the NAID group (ΔV'O2peak 26 (126) mL/min; P = 0.269). The NAID group showed lower percentage of responders to training (56%) than the NIS group (78%) (P = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS COPD patients with NAID showed lower pre-training aerobic capacity and reduced training-induced response than NIS patients after adjusting for potential confounding variables.
Endurance exercise training improves heart rate recovery in patients with COPD.
BACKGROUND Abnormalities of autonomic function have been reported in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The effect of the exercise training in heart rate recovery (HRR) has not been established in patients with COPD. OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of 8-weeks' endurance training program on parasympathetic nervous system response measured as heart rate recovery in a sample of moderate-to-severe COPD patients. METHODS We recruited a consecutive sample of patients with COPD candidates to participate in a pulmonary rehabilitation program from respiratory outpatient clinics of a tertiary hospital. HRR was calculated, before and after training, as the difference in heart rate between end-exercise and one minute thereafter (HRR1) in a constant-work rate protocol. RESULTS A total of 73 COPD patients were included: mean (SD) age 66 (8) years, median (P25-P75) post-bronchodilator FEV1 39 (29-53)%. The prevalence of slow HRR1 (≤12 beats) at baseline was 63%, and was associated with spirometric severity (mean FEV1 35% in slow HRR1 vs 53 in normal HRR1, p < 0.001). After 8-weeks training, HRR1 improved from mean (SD) 10 (7) to 12 (7) beats (p = 0.0127). Multivariate linear regression models showed that the only variable related to post-training HRR1 was pre-training HRR1 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that training enhances HRR in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. HRR is an easy tool to evaluate ANS such that it may be a useful clinical marker of parasympathetic nervous system response in patients with COPD.
Sildenafil to improve respiratory rehabilitation outcomes in COPD: a controlled trial.
The European respiratory journal. 2013;(4):982-92
Pulmonary hypertension is a serious complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that currently has no established pharmacological treatment. This study aimed to assess whether concomitant treatment with sildenafil would enhance the results of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD and increased pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP). In this double-blind, randomised controlled trial patients received 20 mg sildenafil or placebo three times daily and underwent pulmonary rehabilitation for 3 months. The primary end-point was the gain in the cycle endurance time at a constant work-rate. Secondary end-points included performance in the incremental exercise test, 6-min walk distance and quality of life. 63 patients with severe COPD and moderately increased PAP were randomised. Cycle endurance time increased by 149 s (95% CI 26-518 s) in the sildenafil group and by 169 s (95% CI 0-768 s) in the placebo group (median change difference -7 s, 95% CI -540-244 s; p=0.77). Gains in the incremental exercise test, 6-min walk distance and quality of life at the end of the study did not differ between groups. Measurements of arterial oxygenation and adverse events were similar in both groups. In patients with severe COPD and moderately increased PAP, concomitant treatment with sildenafil does not improve the results of pulmonary rehabilitation in exercise tolerance.
Hemodynamic and gas exchange effects of sildenafil in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary hypertension.
American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2010;(3):270-8
RATIONALE Sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, could be useful for treating pulmonary hypertension (PH) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, vasodilators may inhibit hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and impair gas exchange in this condition. OBJECTIVES To assess the acute hemodynamic and gas exchange effects of sildenafil in patients with COPD-associated PH. METHODS We conducted a randomized, dose comparison trial in 20 patients with COPD-associated PH. Eleven patients were assigned to 20 mg, and 9 patients to 40 mg, of sildenafil. Pulmonary hemodynamics and gas exchange, including ventilation-perfusion (V(A)/Q) relationships, were assessed at rest and during constant-work rate exercise, before and 1 hour after sildenafil administration. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Both sildenafil doses reduced the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) at rest and during exercise, without differences between them. Overall, PAP decreased -6 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [95% CI], -7 to -4) at rest and -11 mm Hg (95% CI, -14 to -8) during exercise. After sildenafil, Pa(O(2)) decreased -6 mm Hg (95% CI, -8 to -4) at rest because of increased perfusion in units with low V(A)/Q ratio, without differences between doses. No change in Pa(O(2)) (95% CI, -3 to 0.2 mm Hg) or V(A)/Q relationships occurred during exercise after sildenafil. Changes induced by sildenafil in Pa(O(2)) and V(A)/Q distributions at rest correlated with their respective values at baseline. CONCLUSIONS In patients with COPD-associated PH, sildenafil improves pulmonary hemodynamics at rest and during exercise. This effect is accompanied by the inhibition of hypoxic vasoconstriction, which impairs arterial oxygenation at rest. The use of sildenafil in COPD should be done cautiously and under close monitoring of blood gases. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00491803).
Splenic hematoma in acute pancreatitis. Role of coagulation disorders.
Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie. 1992;(8):538-42
Splenic hematomas are infrequent complications of acute pancreatitis. In some cases, local factors that may play a role in the pathogenesis of the hematoma (thrombosis of the splenic artery or veins, intrasplenic pseudocysts, perisplenic adhesions, enzymatic digestion) are found. In the absence of local factors, the etiology of splenic hemorrhage remains unknown. We report two cases of splenic hematoma occurring during an acute necro-hemorrhagic pancreatitis associated with renal failure that required renal replacement therapy (hemodialysis and continuous arteriovenous hemodialysis). In both cases, more than half of splenic parenchyma was affected by multiple infarctions. No local factors responsible for the splenic abnormalities were detected in either case. Thrombosis of the splenic arterial microcirculation and a coagulation disorder consistent with disseminated intravascular coagulation was detected in one patient. In the second patient, coagulation disorders secondary to either liver disease, pancreatitis and its septic complications, or extracorporeal circuit heparinization for renal replacement therapy were present. Coagulation disorders should be considered whenever a splenic hematoma is found in a patient with acute pancreatitis. Disseminated intravascular coagulation may be the etiology of a splenic hematoma in acute pancreatitis.