Consumption of ultra-processed foods and cancer risk: results from NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort.
BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2018;360:k322
Plain language summary
Foods that are heavily processed tend to have high levels of total fat, sugar and salt and low levels of fibre and vitamins. They also tend to have high levels of contaminants (caused for example by high heat treatment), food additives and plastic packaging exposure. This large prospective population-based cohort study assessed the association between ultra-processed food consumption and the incidence of cancer. The study found that ultra-processed food intake was associated with a higher overall cancer risk and a higher breast cancer risk. A 10% increase in the consumption of ultra-processed foods was associated with an increase of more than 10% greater risk of overall and breast cancer risk. The authors call for further studies to better understand the different elements of food processing and their association to cancer risk.
OBJECTIVE To assess the prospective associations between consumption of ultra-processed food and risk of cancer. DESIGN Population based cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS 104 980 participants aged at least 18 years (median age 42.8 years) from the French NutriNet-Santé cohort (2009-17). Dietary intakes were collected using repeated 24 hour dietary records, designed to register participants' usual consumption for 3300 different food items. These were categorised according to their degree of processing by the NOVA classification. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Associations between ultra-processed food intake and risk of overall, breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer assessed by multivariable Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for known risk factors. RESULTS Ultra-processed food intake was associated with higher overall cancer risk (n=2228 cases; hazard ratio for a 10% increment in the proportion of ultra-processed food in the diet 1.12 (95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.18); P for trend<0.001) and breast cancer risk (n=739 cases; hazard ratio 1.11 (1.02 to 1.22); P for trend=0.02). These results remained statistically significant after adjustment for several markers of the nutritional quality of the diet (lipid, sodium, and carbohydrate intakes and/or a Western pattern derived by principal component analysis). CONCLUSIONS In this large prospective study, a 10% increase in the proportion of ultra-processed foods in the diet was associated with a significant increase of greater than 10% in risks of overall and breast cancer. Further studies are needed to better understand the relative effect of the various dimensions of processing (nutritional composition, food additives, contact materials, and neoformed contaminants) in these associations. STUDY REGISTRATION Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03335644.
[SU.VI.MAX and NutriNet-Santé: lessons from large cohorts].
La Revue du praticien. 2018;(1):37-40
Su.vi.max and nutrinet-santé: lessons from large cohorts. This paper presents two epidemiologic studies in the field of nutrition, implemented in France for the last decades: an intervention trial (SU.VI.MAX) and a web-based prospective cohort study (NutriNet-Santé). The SU.VI.MAX study, a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled primary prevention trial, has shown that 7.5 years daily low-dose antioxidant supplementation (vitamins and minerals) lowered the total cancer incidence in men only, not in women. This may be explained by a lower baseline status of certain antioxidants (measured by blood concentration) in men compared to women. Finally, the effect of antioxidant supplementation on the incidence of cancer could depend on baseline antioxidant status (which differs from gender and/or nutritional status) and the health status of subjects (healthy vs cancer high-risk subjects). The NutriNet-Santé cohort is a web-based prospective cohort study launched in 2009 aiming to investigate the relationship between nutrition (nutrients, foods, dietary patterns, physical activity) and health outcomes; and to examine the determinants of dietary patterns and nutritional status (sociological, economic, cultural, biological, cognitive, perceptions, preferences, etc.).
Mindfulness Is Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome among Individuals with a Depressive Symptomatology.
Plain language summary
Metabolic syndrome is a combination of risk factors including obesity, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and a poor lipid profile. Dispositional mindfulness is a psychological trait that is defined as a non-judgemental awareness of the present moment. While mindfulness has been shown to produce beneficial effects on physical and mental health, no study has examined the associated between mindfulness and the metabolic syndrome risk factors. The aim of this cross-sectional web-based study was to explore the relationship between mindfulness and metabolic syndrome in modifying depressive symptomology across 17,490 individuals. Participants attended a clinical exam and completed the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire to assess dispositional mindfulness. Depressive symptomology was measured through self-administered online questionnaires at the beginning of the study and each year of follow-up. This study found that individuals with higher levels of overall mindfulness were less likely to present with metabolic syndrome, but only among individuals showing depressive symptomology. Based on these results, the authors conclude it is important to encourage mindfulness practices in patients at risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly among those with depressive symptomology. More longitudinal studies are required to better understand mindfulness-based interventions in the clinical setting.
undefined: The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a major public health burden. Dispositional mindfulness has recently been associated with eating disorders, being overweight, and could therefore be associated with the MetS. We aimed to examine in a cross-sectional design the relationship between mindfulness, the MetS, and its risk factors in a large sample of the adult general population and the influence of depressive symptomatology on this association. Adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé study who had completed the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire and attended a clinical and biological examination were available for inclusion. Multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were performed. A total of 17,490 individuals were included. Among individuals with a depressive symptomatology, those with higher mindfulness were less likely to have a MetS (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.57-0.93), a high waist circumference, a low HDL-cholesterol level and an elevated fasting blood glucose level (all <0.05). In those without depressive symptomatology, individuals with higher mindfulness were less likely to have a high waist circumference ( <0.01). In conclusion, higher mindfulness was associated with lower odds of developing a MetS only among individuals with a depressive symptomatology.
Prospective association between combined healthy lifestyles and risk of depressive symptoms in the French NutriNet-Santé cohort.
Journal of affective disorders. 2018;:554-562
BACKGROUND Several modifiable lifestyle indicators, including diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, weight and physical activity have been associated with depression; however, their combined effect has been less studied. The aim of this study was to calculate a Healthy Lifestyle Index (HLI) composed of the 5 above-mentioned indicators and investigate its association with incident depressive symptoms. METHODS The study sample consisted of 25,837 participants from the NutriNet-Santé study, initially free of depressive symptoms. The HLI was computed by assigning 1 point to each lifestyle indicator namely healthy diet, healthy weight, moderate or high physical activity, never smoking and low alcohol consumption. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Hazard Ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models and population attributable risks (PAR) were calculated. RESULTS A total of 2112 incident cases of depressive symptoms were identified over a mean follow-up of 5 years. After accounting for a wide range of potential confounders, a 1-point increase in the HLI was associated with a 10% (95% CI 6%; 13%) reduction in the risk of depressive symptoms. The estimated PAR representing the proportion of cases that are attributable to non-adherence to specific healthy lifestyle indicators were 8% for healthy diet, 5% for healthy weight, 5% for non-smoking and 14% for the non-adherence to a combination of healthy diet, healthy weight and non-smoking. LIMITATIONS Some unmeasured factors related to both depression and lifestyle indicators, such as family history of depressive disorder, stressful life events, and sleep disorders might have led to potential residual confounding. CONCLUSIONS Modifying unhealthy lifestyles, especially diet, weight and smoking, is a potential target of major interest in the prevention of depressive symptoms in adults.
How Healthy Lifestyle Factors at Midlife Relate to Healthy Aging.
With increasing life expectancies worldwide, it is an important public health issue to identify factors that influence the quality of aging. We aimed to investigate the individual and combined roles of lifestyle factors at midlife for healthy aging (HA). We analyzed data from 2203 participants of the French ”Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants” (SU.VI.MAX) cohort aged 45⁻60 years at baseline (1994⁻1995), and assessed the combined impact of lifestyle factors (weight, smoking status, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and diet) on HA (absence of chronic diseases and function-limiting pain, good physical and cognitive functioning, functional independence, no depressive symptoms, and good social and self-perceived health) with a five-component healthy lifestyle index (HLI). Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a robust-error-variance Poisson regression. Approximately 39% of our sample aged healthily. After adjustment for potential confounders, a one-point increase in HLI was related to an 11% higher probability of HA (95% CI = 6%, 16%; p < 0.001). The proportions of HA attributable to specific factors based on the “population attributable risk” concept were 7.6%, 6.0%, 7.8%, and 16.5% for body mass index (BMI), physical activity, diet quality, and smoking status, respectively. This study highlights the importance of healthy lifestyle habits at midlife for the promotion of good overall health during aging.
Relative Influence of Socioeconomic, Psychological and Sensory Characteristics, Physical Activity and Diet on 5-Year Weight Gain in French Adults.
Individual characteristics, dietary intake and physical activity influence weight status; however, the contribution of each factor to weight change has not been studied. The objective was to confirm a conceptual framework by simultaneously assessing the relative influence of socioeconomic, psychological and sensory characteristics, physical activity, and dietary intake on five-year weight gain in French adults. Individual characteristics, physical activity, and dietary data were assessed at baseline in 8014 participants in the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Self-reported anthropometric data were collected at baseline and five years later. Structural equation models, stratified by baseline body mass index (BMI), were used to perform analyses. Dietary restraint was a direct predictor of weight gain, with a stronger effect than age or intake of energy-dense foods, both in non-overweight and overweight participants. In non-overweight individuals only, intake of nutrient-dense foods and physical activity were inversely associated with weight gain. Regarding dietary intake, fat liking was the most important predictor of nutrient-dense food intake and was also related to energy-dense food intake. In these models, dietary restraint appears to be a direct predictor of weight gain and fat liking is a strong determinant of dietary intake. The influence of dietary restraint on weight gain, not explained by diet, warrants further investigation.
Comparison of Sociodemographic and Nutritional Characteristics between Self-Reported Vegetarians, Vegans, and Meat-Eaters from the NutriNet-Santé Study.
BACKGROUND There is a growing trend for vegetarian and vegan diets in many Western countries. Epidemiological evidence suggesting that such diets may help in maintaining good health is rising. However, dietary and sociodemographic characteristics of vegetarians and vegans are not well known. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe sociodemographic and nutritional characteristics of self-reported, adult vegetarians and vegans, compared to meat-eaters, from the French NutriNet-Santé study. METHODS Participants were asked if they were following a specific diet. They were then classified into three self-reported diet groups: 90,664 meat-eaters, 2370 vegetarians, and 789 vegans. Dietary data were collected using three repeated 24-h dietary records. Multivariable polytomic logistic regression models were perfomed to assess the association between the sociodemographic characteristics and type of diet. The prevalence of nutrient intake inadequacy was estimated, by sex and age for micronutrients, as well as by type of self-reported diet. RESULTS Compared with meat-eaters, vegetarians were more likely to have a higher educational level, whereas vegans had a lower education level. Compared with meat-eaters, vegetarians were more likely to be women, younger individuals, and to be self-employed or never employed rather than managerial staff. Vegetarians and vegans substituted animal protein-dense products with a higher consumption of plant protein-dense products (e.g., soy-based products or legumes). Vegetarians had the most balanced diets in terms of macronutrients, but also had a better adherence to French dietary guidelines. Vegetarians exhibited a lower estimated prevalence of inadequacies for micronutrients such as antioxidant vitamins (e.g., for vitamin E, 28.9% for vegetarian women <55 years of age vs. 41.6% in meat-eaters) while vegans exhibited a higher estimated prevalence of inadequacies for some nutrients, in particular vitamin B12 (69.9% in men and 83.4% in women <55 years of age), compared to meat-eaters. CONCLUSIONS Our study highlighted that, overall, self-reported vegetarians and vegans may meet nutritional recommendations.
Neighborhood educational disparities in active commuting among women: the effect of distance between the place of residence and the place of work/study (an ACTI-Cités study).
BMC public health. 2017;(1):569
BACKGROUND Active transportation has been associated with favorable health outcomes. Previous research highlighted the influence of neighborhood educational level on active transportation. However, little is known regarding the effect of commuting distance on social disparities in active commuting. In this regard, women have been poorly studied. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood educational level and active commuting, and to assess whether the commuting distance modifies this relationship in adult women. METHODS This cross-sectional study is based on a subsample of women from the Nutrinet-Santé web-cohort (N = 1169). Binomial, log-binomial and negative binomial regressions were used to assess the associations between neighborhood education level and (i) the likelihood of reporting any active commuting time, and (ii) the share of commuting time made by active transportation modes. Potential effect measure modification of distance to work on the previous associations was assessed both on the additive and the multiplicative scales. RESULTS Neighborhood education level was positively associated with the probability of reporting any active commuting time (relative risk = 1.774; p < 0.05) and the share of commuting time spent active (relative risk = 1.423; p < 0.05). The impact of neighborhood education was greater at long distances to work for both outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that neighborhood educational disparities in active commuting tend to increase with commuting distance among women. Further research is needed to provide geographically driven guidance for health promotion intervention aiming at reducing disparities in active transportation among socioeconomic groups.
Long-term association between the dietary inflammatory index and cognitive functioning: findings from the SU.VI.MAX study.
European journal of nutrition. 2017;(4):1647-1655
PURPOSE Inflammation is a ubiquitous underlying mechanism of the links between diet and cognitive functioning. No study has yet evaluated the overall inflammatory potential of the diet, using the dietary inflammatory index (DII), in relation to cognitive functioning. In a French cohort of middle-aged adults, we evaluated the association between the DII, assessed in midlife, and cognitive performance evaluated 13 years later. METHODS The DII is a literature-derived dietary index developed to determine the inflammatory potential of diet. The DII was estimated at baseline (1994-1996) among 3080 subjects of the SU.VI.MAX (supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals) cohort. Cognitive performance was assessed in 2007-2009 via a battery of standardized neuropsychological tests. Principal component analysis was performed to extract a summary score of cognitive performance. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses were performed to provide regression coefficients and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI). RESULTS In a multivariate model, a strong inverse association was observed between a higher DII (reflecting a more inflammatory diet) and overall cognitive functioning (mean difference Q4 vs. Q1 = -1.76; 95 % CI = -2.81, -0.72, P for trend =0.002). With regard to specific cognitive domains, similar associations were observed with scores reflecting verbal memory, but not executive functioning. CONCLUSION This study suggests that a pro-inflammatory diet at midlife might be associated with subsequent lower cognitive functioning. A diet exhibiting anti-inflammatory properties may help to maintain cognitive health during aging. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION Clinicaltrials.gov (number NCT00272428).
Variations of physical activity and sedentary behavior between before and after cancer diagnosis: Results from the prospective population-based NutriNet-Santé cohort.
Physical activity (PA) but also reduced sedentary behavior may be associated with better prognosis and lower risk of recurrence in cancer patients. Our aim was to quantify the variations in PA and time spent sedentary between before and after diagnosis, relying on prospective data in French adults. We also investigated sociodemographic and lifestyle factors associated with these variations.Subjects (n = 942) were incident cancer cases diagnosed in the NutriNet-Santé cohort between 2009 and 2015. PA and sedentary behavior were prospectively collected with the 7-day short version of the IPAQ questionnaire every year since subjects' inclusion (i.e., an average of 2 year before diagnosis). All PA and sitting time points before and after diagnosis was compared by mixed model. Factors associated with decrease in PA and increase in sitting time were investigated using logistic regressions.Overall and vigorous PA decreased after diagnosis (P = 0.006, -32.8 ± 36.8 MET-hour/week on average, in those who decreased their overall PA and P = 0.005, -21.1 ± 36.8 MET-hour/week for vigorous PA, respectively), especially in prostate (-39.5 ± 36.3 MET-hour/week) and skin (-35.9 ± 38 MET-hour/week) cancers, in men (-40.8 ± 46.3MET-hour/week), and in those professionally inactive (-34.2 ± 37.1 MET-hour/week) (all P < 0.05). Patients with higher PA level before diagnosis were more likely to decrease their PA (odds ratio [OR]: 4.67 [3.21-6.81], P < 0.0001). Overweight patients more likely to decrease moderate PA (OR: 1.45 [1.11-1.89], P = 0.006) and walking (OR: 1.30 [1.10-1.70], P = 0.04). Sitting time increased (P = 0.02, +2.44 ± 2.43 hour/day on average, in those who increased their sitting time), especially in women (+2.48 ± 2.48 hour/day), older patients (+2.48 ± 2.57 hour/day), and those professionally inactive (2.41 ± 2.40 hour/day) (all P < 0.05). Patients less sedentary before diagnosis were more likely to increase their sitting time (OR: 3.29 [2.45-4.42], P < 0.0001).This large prospective study suggests that cancer diagnosis is a key period for change in PA and sedentary behavior. It provides insights to target the subgroups of patients who are at higher risk of decreasing PA and increasing sedentary behavior after cancer diagnosis.