Consumption of ultra-processed foods and cancer risk: results from NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort.
BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2018;360:k322
Plain language summary
Foods that are heavily processed tend to have high levels of total fat, sugar and salt and low levels of fibre and vitamins. They also tend to have high levels of contaminants (caused for example by high heat treatment), food additives and plastic packaging exposure. This large prospective population-based cohort study assessed the association between ultra-processed food consumption and the incidence of cancer. The study found that ultra-processed food intake was associated with a higher overall cancer risk and a higher breast cancer risk. A 10% increase in the consumption of ultra-processed foods was associated with an increase of more than 10% greater risk of overall and breast cancer risk. The authors call for further studies to better understand the different elements of food processing and their association to cancer risk.
OBJECTIVE To assess the prospective associations between consumption of ultra-processed food and risk of cancer. DESIGN Population based cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS 104 980 participants aged at least 18 years (median age 42.8 years) from the French NutriNet-Santé cohort (2009-17). Dietary intakes were collected using repeated 24 hour dietary records, designed to register participants' usual consumption for 3300 different food items. These were categorised according to their degree of processing by the NOVA classification. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Associations between ultra-processed food intake and risk of overall, breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer assessed by multivariable Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for known risk factors. RESULTS Ultra-processed food intake was associated with higher overall cancer risk (n=2228 cases; hazard ratio for a 10% increment in the proportion of ultra-processed food in the diet 1.12 (95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.18); P for trend<0.001) and breast cancer risk (n=739 cases; hazard ratio 1.11 (1.02 to 1.22); P for trend=0.02). These results remained statistically significant after adjustment for several markers of the nutritional quality of the diet (lipid, sodium, and carbohydrate intakes and/or a Western pattern derived by principal component analysis). CONCLUSIONS In this large prospective study, a 10% increase in the proportion of ultra-processed foods in the diet was associated with a significant increase of greater than 10% in risks of overall and breast cancer. Further studies are needed to better understand the relative effect of the various dimensions of processing (nutritional composition, food additives, contact materials, and neoformed contaminants) in these associations. STUDY REGISTRATION Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03335644.
Long-term association between the dietary inflammatory index and cognitive functioning: findings from the SU.VI.MAX study.
European journal of nutrition. 2017;(4):1647-1655
PURPOSE Inflammation is a ubiquitous underlying mechanism of the links between diet and cognitive functioning. No study has yet evaluated the overall inflammatory potential of the diet, using the dietary inflammatory index (DII), in relation to cognitive functioning. In a French cohort of middle-aged adults, we evaluated the association between the DII, assessed in midlife, and cognitive performance evaluated 13 years later. METHODS The DII is a literature-derived dietary index developed to determine the inflammatory potential of diet. The DII was estimated at baseline (1994-1996) among 3080 subjects of the SU.VI.MAX (supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals) cohort. Cognitive performance was assessed in 2007-2009 via a battery of standardized neuropsychological tests. Principal component analysis was performed to extract a summary score of cognitive performance. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses were performed to provide regression coefficients and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI). RESULTS In a multivariate model, a strong inverse association was observed between a higher DII (reflecting a more inflammatory diet) and overall cognitive functioning (mean difference Q4 vs. Q1 = -1.76; 95 % CI = -2.81, -0.72, P for trend =0.002). With regard to specific cognitive domains, similar associations were observed with scores reflecting verbal memory, but not executive functioning. CONCLUSION This study suggests that a pro-inflammatory diet at midlife might be associated with subsequent lower cognitive functioning. A diet exhibiting anti-inflammatory properties may help to maintain cognitive health during aging. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION Clinicaltrials.gov (number NCT00272428).
Supplementation with B vitamins or n-3 fatty acids and depressive symptoms in cardiovascular disease survivors: ancillary findings from the SUpplementation with FOLate, vitamins B-6 and B-12 and/or OMega-3 fatty acids (SU.FOL.OM3) randomized trial.
The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2012;96(1):208-14
Plain language summary
Depression is associated with poorer outcomes in people with heart disease. Substantial evidence suggests a link between dietary factors and mental health. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of supplementation with B vitamins or omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids on depressive symptoms in people with heart disease. Adults aged 45-80 years with cardiovascular disease were randomly assigned to receive 0.56mg folate (as 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate), 3mg vitamin B6 and 0.02mg vitamin B12 ; 600mg EPA and DHA (in a 2:1 ratio); B vitamins plus n-3 fatty acids; or a placebo. Depressive symptoms were measured at years 3 and 5 using the Geriatric Depression Scale. There was no association between supplementation with B vitamins and depressive symptoms. However, men who took n-3 fatty acid supplements had a 28% higher risk of experiencing symptoms of depression. There was no such association observed in women. The authors concluded that the results of the study do not support the use of B vitamin or n-3 supplements for the prevention of depression in CVD survivors.
BACKGROUND Dietary factors might affect depressive symptoms. OBJECTIVE In secondary data analyses, we examined effects of supplementation with B vitamins or n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids on depressive symptoms in cardiovascular disease survivors. DESIGN The SUpplementation with FOLate, vitamins B-6 and B-12 and/or OMega-3 fatty acids (SU.FOL.OM3) trial was a secondary prevention trial (2003-2009; n = 2501) in which individuals aged 45-80 y were randomly assigned, by using a 2 × 2 factorial design, to receive 0.56 mg 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate and vitamins B-6 (3 mg) and B-12 (0.02 mg); EPA and DHA (600 mg) in a 2:1 ratio; B vitamins and n-3 fatty acids; or a placebo. Depressive symptoms were evaluated at years 3 and 5 with the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Overall and sex-specific ORs and 95% CIs were estimated in 2000 participants by using factorial logistic regression. RESULTS After a median of 4.7 y of supplementation, there was no association between allocation to receive B vitamins and depressive symptoms. However, the allocation to receive n-3 fatty acids was positively associated with depressive symptoms (GDS >10) in men (adjusted OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.61) but not in women. CONCLUSIONS We showed no beneficial effects of a long-term, low-dose supplementation with B vitamins or n-3 fatty acids on depressive symptoms in cardiovascular disease survivors. The adverse effects of n-3 fatty acids in men merit confirmation.