Consumption of ultra-processed foods and cancer risk: results from NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort.
BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2018;360:k322
Plain language summary
Foods that are heavily processed tend to have high levels of total fat, sugar and salt and low levels of fibre and vitamins. They also tend to have high levels of contaminants (caused for example by high heat treatment), food additives and plastic packaging exposure. This large prospective population-based cohort study assessed the association between ultra-processed food consumption and the incidence of cancer. The study found that ultra-processed food intake was associated with a higher overall cancer risk and a higher breast cancer risk. A 10% increase in the consumption of ultra-processed foods was associated with an increase of more than 10% greater risk of overall and breast cancer risk. The authors call for further studies to better understand the different elements of food processing and their association to cancer risk.
OBJECTIVE To assess the prospective associations between consumption of ultra-processed food and risk of cancer. DESIGN Population based cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS 104 980 participants aged at least 18 years (median age 42.8 years) from the French NutriNet-Santé cohort (2009-17). Dietary intakes were collected using repeated 24 hour dietary records, designed to register participants' usual consumption for 3300 different food items. These were categorised according to their degree of processing by the NOVA classification. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Associations between ultra-processed food intake and risk of overall, breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer assessed by multivariable Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for known risk factors. RESULTS Ultra-processed food intake was associated with higher overall cancer risk (n=2228 cases; hazard ratio for a 10% increment in the proportion of ultra-processed food in the diet 1.12 (95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.18); P for trend<0.001) and breast cancer risk (n=739 cases; hazard ratio 1.11 (1.02 to 1.22); P for trend=0.02). These results remained statistically significant after adjustment for several markers of the nutritional quality of the diet (lipid, sodium, and carbohydrate intakes and/or a Western pattern derived by principal component analysis). CONCLUSIONS In this large prospective study, a 10% increase in the proportion of ultra-processed foods in the diet was associated with a significant increase of greater than 10% in risks of overall and breast cancer. Further studies are needed to better understand the relative effect of the various dimensions of processing (nutritional composition, food additives, contact materials, and neoformed contaminants) in these associations. STUDY REGISTRATION Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03335644.
Mindfulness Is Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome among Individuals with a Depressive Symptomatology.
Plain language summary
Metabolic syndrome is a combination of risk factors including obesity, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and a poor lipid profile. Dispositional mindfulness is a psychological trait that is defined as a non-judgemental awareness of the present moment. While mindfulness has been shown to produce beneficial effects on physical and mental health, no study has examined the associated between mindfulness and the metabolic syndrome risk factors. The aim of this cross-sectional web-based study was to explore the relationship between mindfulness and metabolic syndrome in modifying depressive symptomology across 17,490 individuals. Participants attended a clinical exam and completed the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire to assess dispositional mindfulness. Depressive symptomology was measured through self-administered online questionnaires at the beginning of the study and each year of follow-up. This study found that individuals with higher levels of overall mindfulness were less likely to present with metabolic syndrome, but only among individuals showing depressive symptomology. Based on these results, the authors conclude it is important to encourage mindfulness practices in patients at risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly among those with depressive symptomology. More longitudinal studies are required to better understand mindfulness-based interventions in the clinical setting.
undefined: The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a major public health burden. Dispositional mindfulness has recently been associated with eating disorders, being overweight, and could therefore be associated with the MetS. We aimed to examine in a cross-sectional design the relationship between mindfulness, the MetS, and its risk factors in a large sample of the adult general population and the influence of depressive symptomatology on this association. Adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé study who had completed the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire and attended a clinical and biological examination were available for inclusion. Multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were performed. A total of 17,490 individuals were included. Among individuals with a depressive symptomatology, those with higher mindfulness were less likely to have a MetS (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.57-0.93), a high waist circumference, a low HDL-cholesterol level and an elevated fasting blood glucose level (all <0.05). In those without depressive symptomatology, individuals with higher mindfulness were less likely to have a high waist circumference ( <0.01). In conclusion, higher mindfulness was associated with lower odds of developing a MetS only among individuals with a depressive symptomatology.
Prospective association between combined healthy lifestyles and risk of depressive symptoms in the French NutriNet-Santé cohort.
Journal of affective disorders. 2018;:554-562
BACKGROUND Several modifiable lifestyle indicators, including diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, weight and physical activity have been associated with depression; however, their combined effect has been less studied. The aim of this study was to calculate a Healthy Lifestyle Index (HLI) composed of the 5 above-mentioned indicators and investigate its association with incident depressive symptoms. METHODS The study sample consisted of 25,837 participants from the NutriNet-Santé study, initially free of depressive symptoms. The HLI was computed by assigning 1 point to each lifestyle indicator namely healthy diet, healthy weight, moderate or high physical activity, never smoking and low alcohol consumption. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Hazard Ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models and population attributable risks (PAR) were calculated. RESULTS A total of 2112 incident cases of depressive symptoms were identified over a mean follow-up of 5 years. After accounting for a wide range of potential confounders, a 1-point increase in the HLI was associated with a 10% (95% CI 6%; 13%) reduction in the risk of depressive symptoms. The estimated PAR representing the proportion of cases that are attributable to non-adherence to specific healthy lifestyle indicators were 8% for healthy diet, 5% for healthy weight, 5% for non-smoking and 14% for the non-adherence to a combination of healthy diet, healthy weight and non-smoking. LIMITATIONS Some unmeasured factors related to both depression and lifestyle indicators, such as family history of depressive disorder, stressful life events, and sleep disorders might have led to potential residual confounding. CONCLUSIONS Modifying unhealthy lifestyles, especially diet, weight and smoking, is a potential target of major interest in the prevention of depressive symptoms in adults.
How Healthy Lifestyle Factors at Midlife Relate to Healthy Aging.
With increasing life expectancies worldwide, it is an important public health issue to identify factors that influence the quality of aging. We aimed to investigate the individual and combined roles of lifestyle factors at midlife for healthy aging (HA). We analyzed data from 2203 participants of the French ”Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants” (SU.VI.MAX) cohort aged 45⁻60 years at baseline (1994⁻1995), and assessed the combined impact of lifestyle factors (weight, smoking status, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and diet) on HA (absence of chronic diseases and function-limiting pain, good physical and cognitive functioning, functional independence, no depressive symptoms, and good social and self-perceived health) with a five-component healthy lifestyle index (HLI). Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a robust-error-variance Poisson regression. Approximately 39% of our sample aged healthily. After adjustment for potential confounders, a one-point increase in HLI was related to an 11% higher probability of HA (95% CI = 6%, 16%; p < 0.001). The proportions of HA attributable to specific factors based on the “population attributable risk” concept were 7.6%, 6.0%, 7.8%, and 16.5% for body mass index (BMI), physical activity, diet quality, and smoking status, respectively. This study highlights the importance of healthy lifestyle habits at midlife for the promotion of good overall health during aging.
Comparison of Sociodemographic and Nutritional Characteristics between Self-Reported Vegetarians, Vegans, and Meat-Eaters from the NutriNet-Santé Study.
BACKGROUND There is a growing trend for vegetarian and vegan diets in many Western countries. Epidemiological evidence suggesting that such diets may help in maintaining good health is rising. However, dietary and sociodemographic characteristics of vegetarians and vegans are not well known. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe sociodemographic and nutritional characteristics of self-reported, adult vegetarians and vegans, compared to meat-eaters, from the French NutriNet-Santé study. METHODS Participants were asked if they were following a specific diet. They were then classified into three self-reported diet groups: 90,664 meat-eaters, 2370 vegetarians, and 789 vegans. Dietary data were collected using three repeated 24-h dietary records. Multivariable polytomic logistic regression models were perfomed to assess the association between the sociodemographic characteristics and type of diet. The prevalence of nutrient intake inadequacy was estimated, by sex and age for micronutrients, as well as by type of self-reported diet. RESULTS Compared with meat-eaters, vegetarians were more likely to have a higher educational level, whereas vegans had a lower education level. Compared with meat-eaters, vegetarians were more likely to be women, younger individuals, and to be self-employed or never employed rather than managerial staff. Vegetarians and vegans substituted animal protein-dense products with a higher consumption of plant protein-dense products (e.g., soy-based products or legumes). Vegetarians had the most balanced diets in terms of macronutrients, but also had a better adherence to French dietary guidelines. Vegetarians exhibited a lower estimated prevalence of inadequacies for micronutrients such as antioxidant vitamins (e.g., for vitamin E, 28.9% for vegetarian women <55 years of age vs. 41.6% in meat-eaters) while vegans exhibited a higher estimated prevalence of inadequacies for some nutrients, in particular vitamin B12 (69.9% in men and 83.4% in women <55 years of age), compared to meat-eaters. CONCLUSIONS Our study highlighted that, overall, self-reported vegetarians and vegans may meet nutritional recommendations.
Long-term association between the dietary inflammatory index and cognitive functioning: findings from the SU.VI.MAX study.
European journal of nutrition. 2017;(4):1647-1655
PURPOSE Inflammation is a ubiquitous underlying mechanism of the links between diet and cognitive functioning. No study has yet evaluated the overall inflammatory potential of the diet, using the dietary inflammatory index (DII), in relation to cognitive functioning. In a French cohort of middle-aged adults, we evaluated the association between the DII, assessed in midlife, and cognitive performance evaluated 13 years later. METHODS The DII is a literature-derived dietary index developed to determine the inflammatory potential of diet. The DII was estimated at baseline (1994-1996) among 3080 subjects of the SU.VI.MAX (supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals) cohort. Cognitive performance was assessed in 2007-2009 via a battery of standardized neuropsychological tests. Principal component analysis was performed to extract a summary score of cognitive performance. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses were performed to provide regression coefficients and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI). RESULTS In a multivariate model, a strong inverse association was observed between a higher DII (reflecting a more inflammatory diet) and overall cognitive functioning (mean difference Q4 vs. Q1 = -1.76; 95 % CI = -2.81, -0.72, P for trend =0.002). With regard to specific cognitive domains, similar associations were observed with scores reflecting verbal memory, but not executive functioning. CONCLUSION This study suggests that a pro-inflammatory diet at midlife might be associated with subsequent lower cognitive functioning. A diet exhibiting anti-inflammatory properties may help to maintain cognitive health during aging. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION Clinicaltrials.gov (number NCT00272428).
Sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary correlates of dietary supplement use in a large sample of French adults: results from the NutriNet-Santé cohort study.
The British journal of nutrition. 2013;(8):1480-91
Information on the determinants of dietary supplement (DS) use in France is largely lacking, especially in population subgroups such as smokers. Also, little is known about the role of health professionals in DS purchases. The aim of the present study was to describe DS use along with its sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary correlates in a large sample of French adults (age 18+years) participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort study. Data were collected by self-administered Internet questionnaires. Food intakes were assessed by 24 h dietary records. Data on DS use were available for 79,786 participants. Supplement users were compared with non-users by logistic regression. Current DS use at least three times/week was reported by 14·6% of men and 28·1% of women. Mg, and vitamins B6 and C were the most frequently consumed nutrients. DS were prescribed or recommended by a physician in 54·9% of the cases. DS use was positively associated with knowledge of nutritional recommendations and organic product consumption, following a healthier diet and lifestyle (non-smoker, moderate leisure-time physical activity). Current smokers used less DS than did non-smokers, but their DS consumption was substantial (19·0%) and they were more likely to self-medicate. The present study provides updated and detailed information on DS use determinants in a large French cohort, including a focus on smokers, for whom the long-term effects of DS use are poorly documented and could represent a risk. These findings pave the way for future aetiological studies.
Profiles of organic food consumers in a large sample of French adults: results from the Nutrinet-Santé cohort study.
PloS one. 2013;(10):e76998
BACKGROUND Lifestyle, dietary patterns and nutritional status of organic food consumers have rarely been described, while interest for a sustainable diet is markedly increasing. METHODS Consumer attitude and frequency of use of 18 organic products were assessed in 54,311 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort. Cluster analysis was performed to identify behaviors associated with organic product consumption. Socio-demographic characteristics, food consumption and nutrient intake across clusters are provided. Cross-sectional association with overweight/obesity was estimated using polytomous logistic regression. RESULTS Five clusters were identified: 3 clusters of non-consumers whose reasons differed, occasional (OCOP, 51%) and regular (RCOP, 14%) organic product consumers. RCOP were more highly educated and physically active than other clusters. They also exhibited dietary patterns that included more plant foods and less sweet and alcoholic beverages, processed meat or milk. Their nutrient intake profiles (fatty acids, most minerals and vitamins, fibers) were healthier and they more closely adhered to dietary guidelines. In multivariate models (after accounting for confounders, including level of adherence to nutritional guidelines), compared to those not interested in organic products, RCOP participants showed a markedly lower probability of overweight (excluding obesity) (25 ≤ body mass index<30) and obesity (body mass index ≥ 30): -36% and -62% in men and -42% and -48% in women, respectively (P<0.0001). OCOP participants (%) generally showed intermediate figures. CONCLUSIONS Regular consumers of organic products, a sizeable group in our sample, exhibit specific socio-demographic characteristics, and an overall healthy profile which should be accounted for in further studies analyzing organic food intake and health markers.
Sociodemographic profiles regarding bitter food consumption: cross-sectional evidence from a general French population.
Certain beneficial foods taste bitter (e.g., cruciferous vegetables) and might be aversive to consumers. Here, individual characteristics according to bitter food consumption patterns were assessed. The study included 2327 participants in the SU.VI.MAX antioxidant-based randomized controlled trial (1994-2002). The sample was drawn from the general French population. Dietary data were obtained from a minimum of twelve 24-h dietary records provided during the first 2years of follow-up. Two bitter food consumption scores were computed - one assessing the variety of items consumed (unweighted score) and the other reflecting exposure to bitterness estimated via complementary sensory panel data from the EpiPref project (weighted score). Associations with sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle factors were analyzed with multiple linear regression. Among men, the variety of bitter foods consumed was positively associated with educational level and alcohol intake and inversely associated with physical activity and rural area of residence. Among women, the same outcome was positively associated with alcohol intake and inversely associated with diabetes. In turn, Body Mass Index displayed a significant inverse association with the bitterness-weighted score across sex, whereas educational level was supported only in women. This study adds to the presently scant knowledge about non-genetic determinants or moderators of actual bitter food intake. Future studies should elucidate the impact of diabetes and body size on bitter food intake patterns.
A healthy dietary pattern at midlife is associated with subsequent cognitive performance.
The Journal of nutrition. 2012;(5):909-15
Few studies have investigated the long-term impact of overall dietary patterns (DP) on cognition. We evaluated the association between empirically derived DP in midlife and cognitive performance 13 y later. Dietary data were based on 24-h dietary records obtained from a subsample of the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydant Study. Cognitive performance was assessed via a battery of neuropsychological tests that included verbal fluency, the RI-48 cued recall test, the trail-making test, and forward and backward digit span. Three composite variables, for global cognitive function, verbal memory, and executive functioning, were built. The multivariate analyses were adjusted for baseline characteristics (age, gender, intervention group, education, alcohol and energy intake, number of dietary records, physical activity, BMI, tobacco use, self-reported memory troubles, diabetes, hypertension, and, for women, menopausal status and hormone therapy use), follow-up time, history of cardiovascular disease, and depressive symptoms. Adjusted means ± SEM of composite variables across quartiles (Q4 vs. Q1) of DP were estimated using ANCOVA. A healthy and a traditional DP were identified. In the multivariate model, the healthy pattern was associated with better global cognitive function (50.1 ± 0.7 vs. 48.9 ± 0.7; P-trend = 0.001) and verbal memory (49.7 ± 0.4 vs. 48.7 ± 0.4; P-trend = 0.01). These relationships were stronger in participants scoring below the gender-specific median values for energy intake (<2490 kcal for men and <1810 for women) than in those scoring at or above those values. Adherence to a healthy DP in middle life may help preserve global cognitive function, especially verbal memory, when total energy intake is regulated.