Mouth-opening device as a treatment modality in trismus patients with head and neck cancer and oral submucous fibrosis: a prospective study.
Clinical oral investigations. 2019;(1):469-476
OBJECTIVES This study investigated the clinical effectiveness of intervention with an open-mouth exercise device designed to facilitate maximal interincisal opening (MIO) and improve quality of life in patients with head and neck (H&N) cancer and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty patients with H&N cancer, OSF, and trismus (MIO < 35 mm) participated in the functional rehabilitation program. An open-mouth exercise device intervention group and conventional group, each consisting of 20 patients, underwent a 12-week training and exercising program and follow-up. For the control group, an additional 20 patients were randomly selected to match the demographic characteristics of the aforementioned two groups. RESULTS The patients' MIO improvements in the aforementioned three groups were 14.0, 10.5, and 1.3 mm, respectively. CONCLUSION Results of this study confirm the significant improvement in average mouth-opening range. In addition, according to patient feedback, significant improvements in health-related quality of life and reductions in trismus symptoms occurred in the open-mouth exercise device group. CLINICAL RELEVANCE This newly designed open-mouth exercise device can facilitate trismus patients with H&N cancer and OSF and improve mouth-opening range and quality of life.
Spices and Atherosclerosis.
Plain language summary
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the world. Atherosclerosis, characterised by the accumulation of fat and inflammation in blood vessels, is the main feature of CVD. Common spices such as pepper, ginger, garlic, onion, cinnamon and chilli may have effects on the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. In this review, the authors focused on the potential protective effects of spices, in atherosclerosis and CVD. Most studies to date have been carried out either in cell culture or in animals. These have revealed various potential mechanisms by which spices exert their beneficial effects, including anti-oxidant, anti-atherogenic, anti-coagulant, anti-inflammatory and cholesterol-lowering properties. There are some human studies evaluating the effects of spices on high blood pressure. Although saffron, turmeric, and chilli pepper had no effect on blood pressure, cinnamon demonstrated significant blood pressure lowering effects in patients with diabetes. Garlic has been shown to have the potential to reduce blood pressure in patients with high blood pressure. These studies provide information on the beneficial roles of spices in reducing cardiovascular risk factors. The types of spices consumed vary across cultures, and currently there are no available population studies showing that consumption of spices is associated with reduction of CVD nor any recommendations for the amounts of spices to be consumed. The authors conclude that the consumption of spices should be encouraged across countries to promote good health.
Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the world. Atherosclerosis, characterized by lipid accumulation and chronic inflammation in the vessel wall, is the main feature of cardiovascular disease. Although the amounts of fruits and vegetables present in the diets vary by country, diets, worldwide, contain large amounts of spices; this may have positive or negative effects on the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. In this review, we focused on the potential protective effects of specific nutrients from spices, such as pepper, ginger, garlic, onion, cinnamon and chili, in atherosclerosis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms, epidemiological analysis, and clinical studies focusing on a variety of spices are covered in this review. Based on the integrated information, we aimed to raise specific recommendations for people with different dietary styles for the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease through dietary habit adjustments.
Fampridine treatment and walking distance in multiple sclerosis: A randomised controlled trial.
Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. 2017;(1):93-99
OBJECTIVE To explore the benefits of modified-release fampridine on walking distance in MS. METHODS This was a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial of fampridine in 25 MS patients. The primary outcome measure was the six minute walk test (6MWT). A p-value<10% led to rejection of the null hypothesis. RESULTS The pre-specified criterion for statistical significance was met, with a 17m improvement in 6MWT in the treatment arm. In addition, baseline S2 accommodation, a nerve excitability parameter that reflects slow K+ channel activity, modified the effect of fampridine. For patients who had abnormally high S2 accommodation values, there was a 28m improvement in the 6MWT (p=0.04). In contrast, for patients with low S2 values, a 0m improvement was noted (p=1.0). CONCLUSION The study provides evidence that fampridine may improve walking distance. Nerve excitability assessment may be useful in selecting those patients who are most likely to gain benefit from fampridine. SIGNIFICANCE Fampridine may improve walking distance in MS. Nerve excitability assessment may assist in identifying those patients most likely to respond to fampridine.
Left ventricular filling profiles and angiotensin system activity in elite baseball players.
International journal of cardiology. 1998;(2):155-60
UNLABELLED Left ventricular (LV) filling profiles in elite baseball players has not been reported in the literature. Also, angiotensin system activity in athletes has never been reported. We used echocardiography to compare 20 male elite baseball players (aged 21.9+/-1.0 years) with those of age- and sex-matched healthy sedentary subjects. Compared with the normal group, the athlete group showed a significant increase in LV mass, LV diastolic and systolic dimension, and left atrial dimension (P<0.05, <0.001, <0.001, and <0.001, respectively). No differences in relative wall thickness or fractional shortening were found between these two groups. Diastolic filling profiles, including peak early diastolic filling velocity (E), peak late diastolic filling velocity (A), E:A ratio, early time-velocity integral (Ei), atrial time-velocity integral (Ai), Ei:Ai ratio, early filling time, deceleration time of early filling, and isovolumic relaxation time, were similar in both groups. Angiotensin system activity, including plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone, and 24-h urinary aldosterone excretion, showed no difference between these two groups. CONCLUSION This study suggests that normal LV filling profile, which is mediated partly by normal angiotensin system activity, is not related to increase in LV dimension and mass in elite baseball players.