Dietary Cholesterol and the Lack of Evidence in Cardiovascular Disease.

Nutrients. 2018;10(6)

Plain language summary

For years, dietary cholesterol was implicated in increasing blood cholesterol levels, therefore contributing to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). While it is known that saturated fatty acids and trans-fatty acids increase CVD risk, the evidence of dietary cholesterol increasing this risk remains inconclusive. This review summarises the current evidence regarding dietary cholesterol, blood cholesterol, saturated fatty acids and the risk of CVD. This review found that the current literature does not support the notion that dietary cholesterol increases the risk of heart disease in healthy individuals. The fact that dietary cholesterol is common in foods that are high in saturated fats may have contributed to the hypothesis that dietary cholesterol increases the risk of CVD. Based on these results, the author suggests individuals incorporate nutrient-dense, calorie controlled, balanced meals in eating patterns.

Abstract

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. For years, dietary cholesterol was implicated in increasing blood cholesterol levels leading to the elevated risk of CVD. To date, extensive research did not show evidence to support a role of dietary cholesterol in the development of CVD. As a result, the 2015⁻2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans removed the recommendations of restricting dietary cholesterol to 300 mg/day. This review summarizes the current literature regarding dietary cholesterol intake and CVD. It is worth noting that most foods that are rich in cholesterol are also high in saturated fatty acids and thus may increase the risk of CVD due to the saturated fatty acid content. The exceptions are eggs and shrimp. Considering that eggs are affordable and nutrient-dense food items, containing high-quality protein with minimal saturated fatty acids (1.56 gm/egg) and are rich in several micronutrients including vitamins and minerals, it would be worthwhile to include eggs in moderation as a part of a healthy eating pattern. This recommendation is particularly relevant when individual’s intakes of nutrients are suboptimal, or with limited income and food access, and to help ensure dietary intake of sufficient nutrients in growing children and older adults.

Lifestyle medicine

Patient Centred Factors : Mediators/Dietary cholesterol
Environmental Inputs : Diet ; Nutrients
Personal Lifestyle Factors : Not applicable
Functional Laboratory Testing : Not applicable
Bioactive Substances : Cholesterol ; HMGCoA

Methodological quality

Allocation concealment : Not applicable
Publication Type : Journal Article ; Review

Metadata