Plain language summary
Prevalence of fracture is 2 to 3-fold higher in women with HIV over age 50 than in the general population. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two doses of vitamin D3 repletion (3000 IU Vs 1000 IU) on bone turnover and change in bone mass and microarchitecture in postmenopausal women with HIV. The study is a randomised placebo-controlled study which recruited women with HIV aged between 40 and 70 years. The participants were randomised to 3000 vs 1000 IU vitamin D3 daily together with 500mg calcium carbonate twice daily. Results indicate that moderate dose vitamin D3 (3000 IU) supplementation in minority postmenopausal women with HIV on established antiretroviral therapy (treatment for HIV) did not appear to have a greater impact on bone mineral density or bone turnover than low dose vitamin D3 supplementation (1000 IU). Authors conclude that further studies are required to determine whether vitamin D3 supplementation is beneficial in this patient population, and if so, what dose provides the maximum benefit in terms of musculoskeletal health in persons aging with HIV.
BACKGROUND Prevalence of osteoporosis and fracture is increased among older people with HIV. We compared the effects of low (1000 IU) vs moderate (3000 IU) vitamin D3 (VitD) supplementation on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in African American and Hispanic postmenopausal women with HIV on antiretroviral therapy. METHODS We performed a 12-month prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with primary outcomes of change in aBMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and secondary outcomes of change in vBMD by quantitative computed tomography and bone turnover markers. An intent-to-treat analysis was performed on 85 randomized subjects (43 low and 42 moderate) for primary DXA outcomes, and complete case analysis was performed for secondary outcomes. RESULTS Mean age was 56 ± 5 years, median CD4 count was 722 cells/mm, and 74% had HIV RNA ≤ 50 copies/mL. Serum 25-OHD was higher in the moderate than low VitD group at 6 months (33.1 ± 10.3 vs 27.8 ± 8.1 ng/mL, P = 0.03) and 12 months, but parathyroid hormone levels remained similar. Percent change in aBMD, vBMD, and bone turnover markers did not differ between low and moderate VitD groups before or after adjustment for baseline aBMD. CONCLUSIONS VitD supplementation at 3000 IU daily increased mean total 25-OHD levels in postmenopausal women with HIV, but we did not find evidence of an effect on BMD beyond those observed with 1000 IU daily. Future studies are necessary to determine whether VitD supplementation is beneficial in this patient population, and if so, what dose is optimal for skeletal health.