Dietary Fiber Intake (Supplemental or Dietary Pattern Rich in Fiber) and Diabetic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials.

Nutrients. 2019;11(2)

Plain language summary

Most of the financial burden of diabetes mellitus is related to management of its complications, and chronic kidney disease is the most expensive and debilitating. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fibre (supplemental or dietary pattern rich in fibre) on diabetic kidney disease. The study is a systemic review that included seven interventional clinical trials that comprised 161 patients with diabetes with an age range of 20 to 74 years. The mean fibre intake in the intervention was 24 g/day and 16 g/day in the control group. Results indicate that only the vegetarian dietary pattern was associated with beneficial kidney outcomes in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. There were no other dietary patterns that had favourable effects on kidney outcomes. Authors conclude that a vegetarian dietary pattern may have a beneficial effects on renal outcomes.

Abstract

Fiber intake is associated with better glycemic control being an important nonpharmacologicaltreatment for diabetes (DM). We hypothesize that a dietary fiber intake can bringbenefits to diabetic kidney disease (DKD), improving renal outcomes. This systematic review aimedto evaluate the effect of dietary fiber (supplemental or dietary pattern rich in fiber) on DKD. Wesearched six databases to identify clinical trials that reported fiber intake and renal outcomes(albuminuria, proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) dialysis) in patients with DM.From 1814 studies, 48 papers were fully evaluated. In the end, seven trials (161 patients, aged 58.3years, 49% females) were included. The studies were organized into three categories (vegetarian,Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and fiber supplement), two evaluatedsupplements and five dietary patterns. Vegetarian diet reduced albuminuria in three trials, two inpatients with type 1 DM and one in patients with type 2 DM; and one study demonstrated a change inthe eGFR in type 1 DM. The individual quality of the studies was low/uncertain. A vegetarian dietarypattern may have a beneficial effect on these renal outcomes. However, the individual effect of theintake of fiber on DKD not was possible to be evaluated.

Lifestyle medicine

Fundamental Clinical Imbalances : Hormonal ; Detoxification and biotransformational
Patient Centred Factors : Triggers/Dietary fibre
Environmental Inputs : Diet ; Nutrients
Personal Lifestyle Factors : Nutrition
Functional Laboratory Testing : Blood

Methodological quality

Allocation concealment : Not applicable
Publication Type : Journal Article ; Review

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