Vegetable sprouts are naturally rich in nutrients and other beneficial compounds. The sprouts of cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, kale, radish and pak choi, stand out due to their high contents of glucosinolates and phenolic compounds. The aim of this review was to compile and update the available knowledge on the production, nutritional composition, and health benefits of cruciferous sprouts. A number of studies have found that compounds found in cruciferous sprouts have anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant capacities. Consumption of cruciferous sprouts contributes to healthy glucose, insulin and fat levels in the blood, and may be beneficial for the treatment of some metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes. There is evidence that compounds in cruciferous sprouts are a useful tool for enhancing phase II enzymes in the liver, and benefit levels of interleukine-6, C-reactive protein, and tumour necrosis factor-α, and inhibition of NF-κB, among others. The active compounds in these sprouts have an influence on several cardiovascular processes, potentially reducing the risk of several diseases. The lack of consistency between studies with regard to sampling schedules, doses, sample size, etc. means that it is not possible at this time to state the effective dose of sprouts or their active compounds needed in order to achieve health benefits. Further research is needed in this area.