Intermittent Fasting in Cardiovascular Disorders-An Overview.

Nutrients. 2019;11(3)

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Plain language summary

Intermittent fasting (IF) is an eating pattern that cycles between periods of fasting and eating. IF has gained popularity in recent years with people wanting to lose weight, and it may have many long-term health benefits. In this review, the authors looked at human and animal studies using variations of IF including time restricted eating (TRE), where eating is confined within a specific window during the day (for example 8 hours eating and 16 hours fasting), and alternate day fasting (ADF), where a day of eating normally is alternated with a day of either fasting entirely, or significant calorie restriction. The authors found that IF is related to many beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, involving atherosclerosis progression, benefits for diabetes mellitus type 2 such as improved glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, lowering of blood pressure, and other cardiovascular risk factors (such as lipid profile and inflammation). It is currently unclear whether the benefits of IF are solely due to weight loss or other mechanisms. The success of every type of diet depends on compliance, and IF seems to be as easy or easier to follow than more traditional diets for many people. Fasting is not recommended for people with hormonal imbalances, pregnant and breastfeeding women, and diabetics. People with eating disorders and underweight people are also not recommended to use the intermittent fasting diet. In recent years, the IF diet and its varieties have become increasingly popular. This diet not only serves to reduce body weight but seems to have other long-term health benefits. However, individuals’ current health and situation should be considered before commencing the IF diet.

Abstract

Intermittent fasting is a form of time restricted eating (typically 16 h fasting and 8 h eating), which has gained popularity in recent years and shows promise as a possible new paradigm in the approach to weight loss and the reduction of inflammation, and has many potential long term health benefits. In this review, the authors will incorporate many aspects of fasting, mainly focusing on its effects on the cardiovascular system, involving atherosclerosis progression, benefits for diabetes mellitus type 2, lowering of blood pressure, and exploring other cardiovascular risk factors (such as lipid profile and inflammation).

Lifestyle medicine

Fundamental Clinical Imbalances : Hormonal ; Immune and inflammation
Patient Centred Factors : Mediators/Intermittent fasting
Environmental Inputs : Diet
Personal Lifestyle Factors : Nutrition
Functional Laboratory Testing : Not applicable
Bioactive Substances : Lipids ; Cholesterol ; Glucose ; Insulin

Methodological quality

Allocation concealment : Not applicable
Publication Type : Journal Article ; Review

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