Mixed Nut Consumption May Improve Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Adults.

Nutrients. 2019;11(7)

Plain language summary

A large portion of heart disease cases are preventable through lifestyle and dietary modifications. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of daily intake of 42.5 g of mixed nuts on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in overweight and obese adults. This study is an 8-week randomized, parallel-arm, controlled trial with two isocaloric treatment groups of mixed-nuts and pretzels. A total of 54 participants (22 females and 32 males) were recruited. Results indicate that supplementation of 42.5 g/day of mixed nuts for 8 weeks decreases body weight, insulin, blood glucose, and lactate dehydrogenase [enzyme] levels compared with consumption of an isocaloric amount of pretzels. Additionally, consumption of pretzels increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels while decreasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Authors conclude that the incorporation of mixed nuts into a usual diet improves some risk factors for CVD.


undefined: Emerging research indicates that nuts are a source of health-promoting compounds demonstrating cardioprotective benefits. However, most studies have assessed the effect of single nuts rather than a nut mixture. The objective of this study was, therefore, to examine the effect of mixed-nut consumption on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in overweight and obese adults. In a randomized, parallel-arm, controlled trial, 48 participants consumed isocaloric (250 kcal) amounts of pretzels or mixed-nuts. Body weight (BW) ( = 0.024), BMI ( = 0.043), and insulin levels ( = 0.032) were significantly lower in the nut group compared to the pretzel group. Mixed-nut consumption also significantly reduced glucose ( = 0.04) and insulin ( = 0.032) levels after 4 and 8 weeks compared to baseline, respectively. Lactate dehydrogenase of the nut group was significantly lower than the pretzel group ( = 0.002). No significant differences were detected between groups for triglycerides, LDL-C, and HDL-C. However, pretzel consumption increased triglycerides ( = 0.048) from 4 weeks to 8 weeks. Moreover, LDL-C increased ( = 0.038) while HDL-C transiently decreased ( = 0.044) from baseline to 4 weeks. No significant lipid changes were detected within the nut group. Our results suggest that supplementing the diet with mixed-nuts could improve CVD risk factors by improving BW and glucose regulation in comparison to a common carbohydrate-rich snack without promoting the negative effects on lipids detected with pretzels.

Lifestyle medicine

Fundamental Clinical Imbalances : Immune and inflammation
Patient Centred Factors : Mediators/Cardiovascular disease
Environmental Inputs : Diet ; Nutrients ; Physical exercise
Personal Lifestyle Factors : Nutrition
Functional Laboratory Testing : Blood

Methodological quality

Jadad score : 3
Allocation concealment : Yes