Plain language summary
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a number of liver disorders and is thought to have a prevalence of 20% in industrialised countries. NAFLD has been associated with dietary excess of saturated fatty acids, refined carbohydrates, and fructose. This prospective observational study evaluated the effects of periodic fasting on the fatty liver index (FLI), a combination of waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) and biochemical characteristics, which has been shown to closely correlate to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results, the gold standard for NAFLD diagnosis. 697 subjects fasted for 6-38 days (mean 8.5 days) in a clinical setting, whilst also engaging in an exercise programme, mindfulness and relaxation. Study subjects included both non-diabetics and type 2 diabetics. There were significant decreases in FLI, weight, BMI and waist circumference, as well as improvements in a number of metabolic blood parameters, in both diabetics and non-diabetics. There were no serious side effects and the intervention was well tolerated. The authors conclude that periodic fasting is an easily realisable, well-tolerated, non-pharmaceutical intervention, which effectively reduces the FLI.
undefined: This prospective observational trial investigated effects and safety of periodic fasting in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The primary end point was set as the change of fatty liver index (FLI) as a surrogate parameter of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Six-hundred and ninety-seven subjects (38 with T2DM) were enrolled. A baseline FLI ≥ 60 (the threshold for fatty liver) was found in 264 subjects (37.9%). The mean duration of fasting was 8.5 ± 4.0 days (range 6-38). FLI decreased significantly (-14.02 ± 11.67; < 0.0001), with a larger effect in individuals with T2DM (-19.15 ± 11.0; < 0.0001; = 0.002 compared to non-diabetic subjects). Body mass index (BMI) decreased by -1.51 ± 0.82 kg/m , and 49.9% of the subjects lost ≥5% body weight. After fasting, nearly half of the 264 subjects with FLI ≥ 60 (highest risk category) shifted to a lower category. The improvement of FLI correlated with the number of fasting days (r = -0.20, < 0.0001) and with the magnitude of BMI reduction (r = 0.14, = 0.0001). Periodic fasting with concomitant weight reduction leads to significant rapid improvement of FLI in subjects with and without T2DM.