Plain language summary
Prevention and management of hypertension are major public health challenges worldwide. Psychosocial factors are related to blood pressure and may lead to hypertension. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term antihypertensive, anti-stress, and psychological state-improving eﬀects of eggplant in human participants with normal-high blood pressure and grade 1 hypertension. The study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparative study. The participants were randomized into one of two intervention groups; placebo group or eggplant group. The participants ingested four eggplant powder capsules, or four placebo capsules every day for 12 weeks. Results indicate that continuous intake of eggplant powder improved blood pressure in participants with normal-high blood pressure and grade 1 hypertension. Additionally, eggplant intake improved positive and negative psychosocial states. Authors conclude that eggplant should be utilised as a safe treatment for blood pressure and mental health.
undefined: Eggplant ( ) is a globally popular vegetable and its significant health effect has not been reported in randomized controlled trials. Recently, we reported that eggplant was rich in choline esters, including acetylcholine (ACh), and had an antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Here, we evaluated the effects of a continuous intake of eggplant powder on blood pressure (BP), stress, and psychological state (PS) in 100 stressed participants with normal-high BP or grade 1 hypertension in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparative study. The participants were randomly assigned to the eggplant or placebo group. Participants in the eggplant group ingested capsules containing eggplant powder (1.2 g/day; 2.3 mg of ACh/day) for 12 weeks, whereas participants in the placebo group ingested placebo capsules. The primary outcome assessed was hospital BP. Secondary outcomes were stress and PS. Eggplant powder intake significantly decreased the hospital diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at week 8 overall and in the normal-high BP group, and the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and DBP at week 12 overall and in the grade 1 hypertension group, compared to those of the placebo group. It also improved negative PSs at week 8 or 12 in the normal-high BP group. This is the first evidence of the BP- and PS-improving effects of eggplant intake in humans. The functional substance responsible for the effects was estimated to be eggplant-derived choline ester, namely ACh.