A Delayed Morning and Earlier Evening Time-Restricted Feeding Protocol for Improving Glycemic Control and Dietary Adherence in Men with Overweight/Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Nutrients. 2020;12(2)

Plain language summary

Dietary strategies which focus on the timing and duration of eating and fasting, rather than the type, quality or quantity of foods, appear to improve metabolic health independent of weight loss. Time restricted feeding (TRF) refers to an eating pattern where food intake is limited to a certain duration, e.g. 8 hours. The aim of this randomized crossover trial was to compare the effects of TRF versus extended feeding time (EXT). 11 sedentary men with obesity/overweight had their three meals which contained equal calories and macronutrient composition, either at 10:00, 13:00 and 17:00 or at 07:00, 14:00 and 21:00 for 5 days, and after a 10 days wash-out phase, swapped to the other feeding pattern. The TRF improved blood glucose control after breakfast and lunch and at night. The TRF pattern was well accepted by participants who felt that it improved their general wellbeing, helped them reduce snacking and the structure encouraged good habits. Work, social and family life schedules were noted as potential barriers to adopting TRF.


undefined: We determined the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF; 8 h/d) versus extended feeding (EXF; 15 h/d) on 24-h and postprandial metabolism and subjective opinions of TRF in men with overweight/obesity. In a randomized crossover design, 11 sedentary males (age 38 ± 5 y; BMI: 32.2 ± 2.0 kg/m ) completed two isoenergetic diet protocols for 5 days, consuming meals at 1000, 1300 and 1700 h (TRF) or 0700, 1400 and 2100 h (EXF). On Day 5, participants remained in the laboratory for 24 h, and blood samples were collected at hourly (0700-2300 h) then 2-hourly (2300-0700 h) intervals for concentrations of glucose, insulin and appetite/incretin hormones. Structured qualitative interviews were conducted following completion of both dietary conditions and investigated thematically. Total 24-h area under the curve (AUC ) [glucose] tended to be lower for TRF versus EXF (-5.5 ± 9.0 mmol/L/h, = 0.09). Nocturnal glucose AUC was lower in TRF (-4.2 ± 5.8 mmol/L/h, = 0.04), with no difference in waking glucose AUC or AUC for [insulin]. Attitudes towards TRF were positive with improved feelings of well-being. Barriers to TRF were work schedules, family commitments and social events. Compared to extended feeding, short-term TRF improved nocturnal glycemic control and was positively perceived in men with overweight/obesity.

Lifestyle medicine

Fundamental Clinical Imbalances : Hormonal
Patient Centred Factors : Mediators/Feeding times
Environmental Inputs : Diet ; Nutrients ; Psychosocial influences
Personal Lifestyle Factors : Nutrition
Functional Laboratory Testing : Blood

Methodological quality

Jadad score : 3
Allocation concealment : Not applicable


Nutrition Evidence keywords : Time restricted feeding ; Intermittent fasting