Plain language summary
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) results from progressive loss of insulin secretion, which is typically combined with various degrees of insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of key sociodemographic and lifestyle-related risk factors for identifying vulnerable groups for T2DM with emphasis on data from Europe. This study is a narrative review which includes 101 publications. Literature shows that prevention of T2DM should be a collaborative effort which mobilizes multiple partners/ stakeholders at a national and international (e.g. European) level. In addition, a holistic approach is becoming increasingly essential in order to put into effect multidimensional public health programs and integrated interventions for effective T2DM prevention which will take into account both traditional and socioeconomic/socioecological factors. Authors conclude that a multidimensional approach for the prevention of T2DM may have a broader impact against the current diabesity epidemic within and across countries in Europe.
BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) comprises the vast majority of all diabetes cases in adults, with alarmingly increasing prevalence over the past few decades worldwide. A particularly heavy healthcare burden of diabetes is noted in Europe, where 8.8% of the population aged 20-79 years is estimated to have diabetes according to the International Diabetes Federation. Multiple risk factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of T2DM with complex underlying interplay and intricate gene-environment interactions. Thus, intense research has been focused on studying the role of T2DM risk factors and on identifying vulnerable groups for T2DM in the general population which can then be targeted for prevention interventions. METHODS For this narrative review, we conducted a comprehensive search of the existing literature on T2DM risk factors, focusing on studies in adult cohorts from European countries which were published in English after January 2000. RESULTS Multiple lifestyle-related and sociodemographic factors were identified as related to high T2DM risk, including age, ethnicity, family history, low socioeconomic status, obesity, metabolic syndrome and each of its components, as well as certain unhealthy lifestyle behaviors. As Europe has an increasingly aging population, multiple migrant and ethnic minority groups and significant socioeconomic diversity both within and across different countries, this review focuses not only on modifiable T2DM risk factors, but also on the impact of pertinent demographic and socioeconomic factors. CONCLUSION In addition to other T2DM risk factors, low socioeconomic status can significantly increase the risk for prediabetes and T2DM, but is often overlooked. In multinational and multicultural regions such as Europe, a holistic approach, which will take into account both traditional and socioeconomic/socioecological factors, is becoming increasingly crucial in order to implement multidimensional public health programs and integrated community-based interventions for effective T2DM prevention.