Plain language summary
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease where the skin forms bumpy red patches covered with white scales. There is no cure, but medications have focused on supressing the immune response. There is a link between the gut microbiome and psoriasis but it is poorly understood. This review includes the current understanding of how psoriasis develops and discusses the recent findings to support further research in this area. The composition of the gut microbiome affects inflammation in the whole body. This inflammation is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and other inflammatory disorders. Recent studies have linked cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome to an imbalance in the gut microbiome. Psoriasis is often found alongside these conditions with similar abnormalities in gut bacteria. An imbalance in gut microbiome could cause certain people to develop psoriasis. The role of the gut microbiome needs to be further clarified but mounting evidence for this gut/skin link means that other therapeutic options may be available for treatment in the future.
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory cutaneous disease, characterized by activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells, myeloid dendritic cells, Th17 cells, and hyperproliferating keratinocytes. Recent studies revealed skin-resident cells have pivotal roles in developing psoriatic skin lesions. The balance in effector T cells and regulatory T cells is disturbed, leading Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells to produce proinflammatory IL-17. Not only acquired but also innate immunity is important in psoriasis pathogenesis, especially in triggering the disease. Group 3 innate lymphoid cell are considered one of IL-17-producing cells in psoriasis. Short chain fatty acids produced by gut microbiota stabilize expression of Foxp3 in regulatory T cells, thereby stabilizing their function. The composition of gut microbiota influences the systemic inflammatory status, and associations been shown with diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, psychomotor diseases, and other systemic inflammatory disorders. Psoriasis has been shown to frequently comorbid with diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, psychomotor disease and obesity, and recent report suggested the similar abnormality in gut microbiota as the above comorbid diseases. However, the precise mechanism and relation between psoriasis pathogenesis and gut microbiota needs further investigation. This review introduces the recent advances in psoriasis research and tries to provide clues to solve the mysterious relation of psoriasis and gut microbiota.