Plain language summary
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by infection from the newly emerged, highly contagious coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between plasma glucose levels and clinic outcomes in COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The study is a retrospective longitudinal, multi-centre study from a cohort of 7,337 COVID-19 cases enrolled among 19 hospitals. Results show that patients with pre-existing T2D received significantly more intensive integrated treatments to manage their symptoms of COVID-19 than the non-diabetic subjects. Furthermore, findings indicate that well-controlled blood glucose was associated with a markedly improved outcome of patients with COVID-19 and pre-existing T2D. Authors conclude that T2D is an important risk factor for COVID-19 progression and adverse endpoints, and well-controlled blood glucose is associated with a significant reduction in the composite adverse outcomes and death.
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major comorbidity of COVID-19. However, the impact of blood glucose (BG) control on the degree of required medical interventions and on mortality in patients with COVID-19 and T2D remains uncertain. Thus, we performed a retrospective, multi-centered study of 7,337 cases of COVID-19 in Hubei Province, China, among which 952 had pre-existing T2D. We found that subjects with T2D required more medical interventions and had a significantly higher mortality (7.8% versus 2.7%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.49) and multiple organ injury than the non-diabetic individuals. Further, we found that well-controlled BG (glycemic variability within 3.9 to 10.0 mmol/L) was associated with markedly lower mortality compared to individuals with poorly controlled BG (upper limit of glycemic variability exceeding 10.0 mmol/L) (adjusted HR, 0.14) during hospitalization. These findings provide clinical evidence correlating improved glycemic control with better outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and pre-existing T2D.