Plain language summary
Hyperglycaemia was a risk factor for mortality from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and is an independent risk factor for lower respiratory tract infection and poor prognosis. The aim of this retrospective study of 605 patients without previously diagnosed diabetes was to examine the association between fasting blood glucose (FBG) on admission and the 28-day in hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients. Patients with a FBG level of 7.0mmol/l or over had more than double the risk of dying than those with a level of 6.0mmol/l or less. Other risk factors for mortality included age, being male, and severity of pneumonia at admission. Compared with patients whose FBG was 6.0mmol/l or lower at admission, patients with FBG of 7.0 mmol/l and above had a 3.99 times higher risk of in-hospital complications, whilst those with FBG of 6.1–6.9 mmol/l had a 2.61 times higher risk of complications. The authors conclude that glycaemic testing and control are important to all COVID-19 patients even where they have no pre-existing diabetes.
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Hyperglycaemia is associated with an elevated risk of mortality in community-acquired pneumonia, stroke, acute myocardial infarction, trauma and surgery, among other conditions. In this study, we examined the relationship between fasting blood glucose (FBG) and 28-day mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients not previously diagnosed as having diabetes. METHODS We conducted a retrospective study involving all consecutive COVID-19 patients with a definitive 28-day outcome and FBG measurement at admission from 24 January 2020 to 10 February 2020 in two hospitals based in Wuhan, China. Demographic and clinical data, 28-day outcomes, in-hospital complications and CRB-65 scores of COVID-19 patients in the two hospitals were analysed. CRB-65 is an effective measure for assessing the severity of pneumonia and is based on four indicators, i.e. confusion, respiratory rate (>30/min), systolic blood pressure (≤90 mmHg) or diastolic blood pressure (≤60 mmHg), and age (≥65 years). RESULTS Six hundred and five COVID-19 patients were enrolled, including 114 who died in hospital. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that age (HR 1.02 [95% CI 1.00, 1.04]), male sex (HR 1.75 [95% CI 1.17, 2.60]), CRB-65 score 1-2 (HR 2.68 [95% CI 1.56, 4.59]), CRB-65 score 3-4 (HR 5.25 [95% CI 2.05, 13.43]) and FBG ≥7.0 mmol/l (HR 2.30 [95% CI 1.49, 3.55]) were independent predictors for 28-day mortality. The OR for 28-day in-hospital complications in those with FBG ≥7.0 mmol/l and 6.1-6.9 mmol/l vs <6.1 mmol/l was 3.99 (95% CI 2.71, 5.88) or 2.61 (95% CI 1.64, 4.41), respectively. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION FBG ≥7.0 mmol/l at admission is an independent predictor for 28-day mortality in patients with COVID-19 without previous diagnosis of diabetes. Glycaemic testing and control are important to all COVID-19 patients even where they have no pre-existing diabetes, as most COVID-19 patients are prone to glucose metabolic disorders. Graphical abstract.