Plain language summary
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in developed countries. There are many studies linking unhealthy nutrition and lifestyles to CVD, so there is a need to modify these factors. Different types of diet exist, or have been established, to optimise the approach such as the Mediterranean diet (MeDi), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet (DASH), vegetarian diet, ketogenic diet, and Japanese diet. This review looks at the aspects of the diets. It evaluates the factors that increase CVD risk and the potential application and benefits of nutritional protocols. The diets are discussed along with factors such as energy excess, saturated fat intake, free sugars and refined starches intake, dietary fibre intake, fruit and vegetable intake, Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA): omega-3, Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), anthocyanins, vitamins and sedentary behaviour. The authors conclude that the MeDi has the best nutritional pattern. It includes whole grains, pulses, fiber and PUFAs without completely excluding food of animal origin such as meat, fish, dairy products, eggs, and limits alcohol consumption. The MeDi also includes conviviality and physical activity.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) represent to date the leading cause of mortality in both genders in the developed countries. In this context, a strong need for CVD prevention is emerging through lifestyle modification and nutrition. In fact, several studies linked CVD with unhealthy nutrition, alcohol consumption, stress, and smoking, together with a low level of physical activity. Thus, the primary aim is to prevent and reduce CVD risk factors, such as impaired lipid and glycemic profiles, high blood pressure and obesity. Different types of diet have been, therefore, established to optimize the approach regarding this issue such as the Mediterranean diet, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet (DASH), vegetarian diet, ketogenic diet, and Japanese diet. Depending on the diet type, recommendations generally emphasize subjects to increase vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and pulses consumption, but discourage or recommend eliminating red meat, sweets, and sugar-sweetened beverages, along with processed foods that are high in sugar, salt, fat, or low in dietary fiber. In particular, we evaluated and compared the peculiar aspects of these well-known dietary patterns and, thus, this review evaluates the critical factors that increase CVD risk and the potential application and benefits of nutritional protocols to ameliorate dietary and lifestyle patterns for CVD prevention.