Mediterranean Diet (MD) is currently considered one of the healthiest dietary models worldwide due to the high intake of antioxidants, dietary fibre, monounsaturated and omega-3 fatty acids, phytosterols and probiotics. The aim of this review was to present current literature showing evidence on the possible impact of MD on health and mental health. The review was based on 27 articles of which 13 were carried out in Spain, 3 in the USA, 3 in Italy, 4 in Australia and 4 in other EU countries. Literature shows that MD improves: - metabolic cardiovascular parameters with a reduced incidence of major cardiovascular events by approximately 30%. - metabolic balance in patients affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus. - biochemical markers for metabolic disorders as well as in patients at risk of specific cancer diseases. Additionally, not enough data is available on the MD effects on specific psychopathological issues. In fact, besides adherence to MD, other factors - which should be further investigated - also play a role in the effectiveness of the MD. Authors conclude that further studies are needed to address the efficacy of diet as an adjunctive treatment for mental disorders as well as for the management of comorbid cardiovascular and metabolic issues.