The gut microbiome may have a role in regular brain function and mental health and this review paper aimed to determine the mechanisms through which this may be possible. There are several mental health disorders that may be affected by the gut microbiome, major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and addiction. It appears that there is a correlation between a disordered gut microbiome (known as dysbiosis) and MDD, ASD and addiction. Anxiety symptoms in healthy individuals and cognitive deficits in individuals with AD have reportedly been improved with probiotics. How the gut microbiome communicates with the brain was also discussed with the enteric nervous system, vagus nerve, spinal chord, immune system and brain signalling molecules all being implicated as possible routes. Finally, the paper discussed the use of probiotics for the prevention or treatment of mental disorders, with Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus and specifically L. reuteri, L. plantarum and L. helveticus all shown in animal models to improve aspects associated with mental disorders. Amongst the human research B. longum has been shown to relieve stress and increase cognitive function in healthy individuals. It was concluded that studies have elucidated a relationship between the gut microbiome and mental health through various routes of communication. Research should focus on how gut microbiome changes are involved in mental illness. This study could be used by healthcare professionals to further knowledge on the potential relationship between the gut microbiome and mental health.