Plain language summary
In patients with severe mental disorders, motivation to follow a healthy diet and lifestyle might be low. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables may improve metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular health and mental health. This randomised community-based clinical trial included seventy-four patients with severe mental disorders out of which 37.8% of the participants had schizophrenia or related disorders, 29.7% had bipolar disorder, 25.7% had depressive disorder, 4.1% had a personality disorder, and 2.7% had obsessive-compulsive disorder. The intervention group followed a four-week food education programme (DIETMENT) aimed at promoting fruit and vegetable consumption. A five-month post-intervention analysis showed no increase in participants diagnosed with metabolic syndrome in the intervention group, but an increase in participants diagnosed with metabolic syndrome in the control group. There was a significant reduction in the glomerular filtrate rate in the intervention group. In patients with severe mental disorders, more studies should be conducted to examine the health-promoting effects of adding more fruits and vegetables to the diet. Health professionals can use the results of this study to understand how fruits and vegetables contribute to reducing metabolic syndrome and heart disease risk.
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study is to determine the metabolic impact of a nutrition education program on metabolic parameters and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). RESULTS Seventy-four patients were included (mean age, 48.7 years [Standard deviation, SD: 10.8], 55.4% men). The diagnoses of SMD were 37.8% schizophrenia and related disorders; 29.7% bipolar disorder; 25.7% depressive disorder; 4.1% personality disorders; and 2.7% obsessive compulsive disorders. Thirty-seven individuals were distributed in both the intervention group (IG) and the control group (CG). In the IG the presence of MetS was 56.3% and in the CG 46.7%, with no statistically significant difference (p = 0.309). At the end of the study, glomerular filtrate decreased in the IG, body mass index and abdominal perimeter increased in both groups, and there were no changes in metabolic parameters between the groups. Between the baseline and the end of the study, there was no increase in the number of patients diagnosed with MetS (14 at both points); and in the CG the increase was from 8 to 12 (p = 0.005). An intervention based on fruit and vegetable intake could prevent progression to MetS in individuals with SMD, decreasing the likelihood of cardiovascular disease. Trial registration The trial was retrospectively registered on International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) Register on 11 March 2022 (ISRCTN12024347).