Plain language summary
A low carbohydrate diet (LCD) could be an effective dietary strategy for managing Type 2 Diabetes and body weight. This follow-up of a randomised controlled study evaluated the effect of moderate LCD after 18 months of 90 g/day LCD in 85 poorly controlled Type 2 Diabetic patients and compared it with Traditional Diabetic Diet (TDD). Those who followed the LCD diet ate significantly fewer carbohydrates and more protein and fat at the follow up between 18 and 30 months compared to those who followed the TDD group. The LCD group also showed significant improvements in serum HbA1C, two-hour serum glucose, serum alanine aminotransferase and Medication Effect Score in comparison with the TDD group. However, the level of triglycerides increased, and HDL levels decreased significantly in the LCD group from 18 to 30 months. There was however no significant difference between the groups in the improvement of HbA1C, fasting serum glucose, 2 h serum glucose, as well as serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, ALT, creatinine, and urine microalbumin. To confirm the benefits of LCD on glycaemic control, further robust studies are needed. Results of this study can help healthcare professionals gain a better understanding of the prolonged effects of LCD on glycaemic control, liver function, and medication effect scores.
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effect at a one-year follow-up after an 18-month randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 90 gm/day low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eighty-five poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients with an initial HbA1c ≥ 7.5% who have completed an 18-month randomized controlled trial (RCT) on 90 g/day low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) were recruited and followed for one year. A three-day weighted food record, relevant laboratory tests, and medication effect score (MES) were obtained at the end of the previous trial and one year after for a total of 30 months period on specific diet. RESULTS 71 (83.5%) patients completed the study, 35 were in TDD group and 36 were in LCD group. Although the mean of percentage changes in daily carbohydrate intake was significantly lower for those in TDD group than those in LCD group (30.51 ± 11.06% vs. 55.16 ± 21.79%, p = 0.0455) in the period between 18 months and 30 months, patients in LCD group consumed significantly less amount of daily carbohydrate than patients in TDD group (131.8 ± 53.9 g vs. 195.1 ± 50.2 g, p < 0.001). The serum HbA1C, two-hour serum glucose, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and MES were also significantly lower for the LCD group patients than those in the TDD group (p = 0.017, p < 0.001, p = 0.017, and p = 0.008 respectively). The mean of percentage changes of HbA1C, fasting serum glucose, 2 h serum glucose, as well as serum cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, ALT, creatinine, and urine microalbumin, however, were not significantly different between the two groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS The one-year follow-up for patients on 90 g/d LCD showed potential prolonged and better outcome on glycaemic control, liver function and MES than those on TDD for poorly controlled diabetic patients.