Skeletal Muscle in Hypoxia and Inflammation: Insights on the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Department of Medical Surgical ad Health Science, Clinica Medica, Cattinara Hospital, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.SC Assistenza Farmaceutica, Cattinara Hospital, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Giuliano Isontina, Trieste, Italy.Department of Medical Surgical ad Health Science, Clinica Medica, Cattinara Hospital, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.Department of Medical Surgical ad Health Science, Clinica Medica, Cattinara Hospital, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.Department of Medical Surgical ad Health Science, Clinica Medica, Cattinara Hospital, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.SC Assistenza Farmaceutica, Cattinara Hospital, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Giuliano Isontina, Trieste, Italy.Department of Medical Surgical ad Health Science, Clinica Medica, Cattinara Hospital, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.Department of Medical Surgical ad Health Science, Clinica Medica, Cattinara Hospital, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.SC Assistenza Farmaceutica, Cattinara Hospital, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Giuliano Isontina, Trieste, Italy.Department of Medical Surgical ad Health Science, Clinica Medica, Cattinara Hospital, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.

Frontiers in nutrition. 2022;:865402
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Abstract

SARS-CoV-2 infection is often associated with severe inflammation, oxidative stress, hypoxia and impaired physical activity. These factors all together contribute to muscle wasting and fatigue. In addition, there is evidence of a direct SARS-CoV-2 viral infiltration into skeletal muscle. Aging is often characterized by sarcopenia or sarcopenic obesity These conditions are risk factors for severe acute COVID-19 and long-COVID-19 syndrome. From these observations we may predict a strong association between COVID-19 and decreased muscle mass and functions. While the relationship between physical inactivity, chronic inflammation, oxidative stress and muscle dysfunction is well-known, the effects on muscle mass of COVID-19-related hypoxemia are inadequately investigated. The aim of this review is to highlight metabolic, immunity-related and redox biomarkers potentially affected by reduced oxygen availability and/or muscle fatigue in order to shed light on the negative impact of COVID-19 on muscle mass and function. Possible countermeasures are also reviewed.

Methodological quality

Publication Type : Review

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