Plain language summary
Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have a higher risk of macrovascular complications. Intensive glycaemic control reduces microvascular complications and exerts a modest improved effect on macrovascular outcomes. The main aim of this study was to explore the effects of white common bean extract (WCBE) on glucose metabolism and diabetic complications in patients with T2D. This study was a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial which enrolled ninety-six patients with T2D aged between 35 and 75 years. Participants were randomly assigned in a 1:2 ratio to the control group and WCBE group. Results showed that WCBE alleviated glucose metabolism dysbiosis and diabetic complication indices. In fact, after 2 months of an intense intervention with a WCBE treatment and in the following two-month maintenance period, the improvements to glycaemic metabolism were preserved. Furthermore, there was notable improvement of the structure of the gut microbiota, especially the enrichment of short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria and inhibition of opportunistic pathogens. Authors conclude that WCBE may be considered as a novel prebiotic antidiabetic agent for the regulation of glucose metabolism and gut microbiota homeostasis and may slightly ameliorate diabetic complications in patients with T2D.
OBJECTIVE Excessive carbohydrate intake is a high risk factor for increased morbidity of type 2 diabetes (T2D). A novel regimen for the dietary care of diabetes that consists of a highly active α-amylase inhibitor derived from white common bean extract (WCBE) and sufficient carbohydrates intake was applied to attenuate T2D and its complications. Furthermore, the role of gut microbiota in this remission was also investigated. METHODS We conducted a 4-month randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. During the intense intervention period, ninety subjects were randomly assigned to the control group (Group C) and WCBE group (Group W). Subjects in Group C were supplemented with 1.5 g of maltodextrin as a placebo. Subjects in Group W took 1.5 g of WCBE half an hour before a meal. Fifty-five participants continued the maintenance intervention receiving the previous dietary intervention whereas less frequent follow-up. The variation in biochemical, vasculopathy and neuropathy indicators and the structure of the fecal microbiota during the intervention was analyzed. RESULT Glucose metabolism and diabetic complications showed superior remission in Group W with a 0.721 ± 0.742% decline of glycosylated hemoglobin after 4 months. The proportion of patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (Toronto Clinical Scoring System, TCSS ≥ 6) was significantly lower in Group W than in Group C. Both the left and right sural sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV-left sural and SNCV-right sural) slightly decreased in Group C and slightly increased in Group W. Additionally, the abundances of Bifidobacterium, Faecalibacterium and Anaerostipes were higher in Group W, and the abundances of Weissella, Klebsiella, Cronobacter and Enterobacteriaceae_unclassified were lower than those in Group C at month 2. At the end of month 4, Bifidobacterium remained more abundant in Group W. CONCLUSION To our knowledge, this is the first report of improvement to diabetes complications by using a dietary supplement in such a short-term period. The enrichment of SCFA-producing bacteria might be responsible for the attenuation of T2D and its complications. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER http://www.chictr.org.cn/edit.aspx?pid=23309&htm=4, identifier ChiCTR-IOR-17013656.