Vitamin D-A prominent immunomodulator to prevent COVID-19 infection.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Bharat Institute of Technology (BIT), School of Pharmacy, Meerut, India. Department of Pharmacology, MM College of Pharmacy, Maharishi Markandeshwar (Deemed to be) University, Ambala, India. School of Pharmacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, India. Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, India. Uttaranchal Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Uttaranchal University, Dehradun, India. Department of Pharmaceutics, Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University Madhya Pradesh (AUMP), Gwalior, India. School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar, India. Faculty of Health, Australian Research Centre in Complementary and Integrative Medicine, University of Technology Sydney, New South Wales, Ultimo, Australia. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, India. Facultad de Química y de Farmacia, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile. Institute for Biological and Medical Engineering, Schools of Engineering, Medicine and Biological Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile. Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney, 2007, New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. Centre for Inflammation, Centenary Institute and University of Technology Sydney, Faculty of Science, School of Life Sciences, New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. Department of Life Sciences, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Discipline of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

International journal of rheumatic diseases. 2023;(1):13-30


COVID-19 remains a life-threatening infectious disease worldwide. Several bio-active agents have been tested and evaluated in an effort to contain this disease. Unfortunately, none of the therapies have been successful, owing to their safety concerns and the presence of various adverse effects. Various countries have developed vaccines as a preventive measure; however, they have not been widely accepted as effective strategies. The virus has proven to be exceedingly contagious and lethal, so finding an effective treatment strategy has been a top priority in medical research. The significance of vitamin D in influencing many components of the innate and adaptive immune systems is examined in this study. This review aims to summarize the research on the use of vitamin D for COVID-19 treatment and prevention. Vitamin D supplementation has now become an efficient option to boost the immune response for all ages in preventing the spread of infection. Vitamin D is an immunomodulator that treats infected lung tissue by improving innate and adaptive immune responses and downregulating the inflammatory cascades. The preventive action exerted by vitamin D supplementation (at a specific dose) has been accepted by several observational research investigations and clinical trials on the avoidance of viral and acute respiratory dysfunctions. To assess the existing consensus about vitamin D supplementation as a strategy to treat and prevent the development and progression of COVID-19 disease, this review intends to synthesize the evidence around vitamin D in relation to COVID-19 infection.

Methodological quality

Publication Type : Review