Accumulating studies have demonstrated that there are strong correlations between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and gut microbiota. A nutritious diet composed of an adequate level of dietary fibres could provide enough carbohydrates for the gut microbiota to ferment, and the microbial metabolites could provide energy supply and regulate the immune function of the host. The aim of this study was to analyse the changes in gut microbiota, serum metabolism and emotional mood of patients with T2DM after consumption of a high-fibre diet. This study was a randomised, open-label, parallel-group clinical trial in T2DM patients with a 4-week treatment period. Seventeen patients clinically diagnosed with T2DM enrolled in the clinical trial and were randomly assigned into two groups: the control group (n = 8) or the intervention group (n = 9). Results showed that the high-fibre diet (compared to the control group): - improved glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism of participants with T2DM; - decreased serum levels of inflammatory chemokines in participants with T2DM; - alleviated depression and anxiety symptoms, particularly by the uptake of more diverse carbohydrates in the diet in participants with T2DM; - enhanced the diversity of gut microbiota in the treatment group. Authors conclude that the dietary source of fibre demonstrated protective impacts on the gut ecosystem, and the alteration of the gut microbiota composition improved the glucose homeostasis in patients with T2DM.