Phytochemicals of Withania somnifera as a Future Promising Drug against SARS-CoV-2: Pharmacological Role, Molecular Mechanism, Molecular Docking Evaluation, and Efficient Delivery.

Department of Pharmacy, Hospital Sultanah Nur Zahirah, Kuala Terengganu 20400, Malaysia. Centre for Virus and Vaccine Research, School of Medical and Life Sciences, Sunway University, Subang Jaya 47500, Malaysia. Department of Biological Sciences, School of Medical and Life Sciences, Sunway University, Subang Jaya 47500, Malaysia. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Asia Metropolitan University, Johor Bahru 81750, Malaysia. Department of Biomedical Science and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu 88400, Malaysia. Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh 47000, Malaysia. Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA. Centre of Excellence (CoE), Faculty of Chemical Engineering & Technology & Micro System Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Arau 02600, Malaysia. Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar 01000, Malaysia. Department of Pharmacy, State University of Bangladesh, 77 Satmasjid Road, Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh. Health Med Science Research Network, 3/1, Block F, Lalmatia, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh. Pharmacology Unit, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, MONASH University, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Subang Jaya 47500, Malaysia. Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Bioscience and Nursing, MAHSA University, Subang Jaya 42610, Malaysia. School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Subang Jaya 47500, Malaysia. Centre of Excellence for Biomaterials Engineering & Faculty of Pharmacy, AIMST University, Bedong 08100, Malaysia. Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai 600077, India. Faculty of Pharmacy, AIMST University, Semeling, Bedong 08100, Malaysia. Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Bioscience, and Nursing, MAHSA University, Jenjarom 42610, Malaysia. Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai 600077, India. Department of Foundation, RCSI & UCD Malaysia Campus, No 4, Jalan Sepoy Lines, Georgetown 10450, Malaysia.

Microorganisms. 2023;(4)
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Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has killed millions of people since first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Intriguingly, Withania somnifera (WS) has shown promising antiviral effects against numerous viral infections, including SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, which are contributed by its phytochemicals. This review focused on the updated testing of therapeutic efficacy and associated molecular mechanisms of WS extracts and their phytochemicals against SARS-CoV-2 infection in preclinical and clinical studies with the aim to develop a long-term solution against COVID-19. It also deciphered the current use of the in silico molecular docking approach in developing potential inhibitors from WS targeting SARS-CoV-2 and host cell receptors that may aid the development of targeted therapy against SARS-CoV-2 ranging from prior to viral entry until acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This review also discussed nanoformulations or nanocarriers in achieving effective WS delivery to enhance its bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy, consequently preventing the emergence of drug resistance, and eventually therapeutic failure.

Methodological quality

Publication Type : Review