The Effects of 10-Day Exogenous Ketone Consumption on Repeated Time Trial Running Performances: A Randomized-Control Trial.
Journal of dietary supplements. 2022;(1):34-48
INTRODUCTION The effects of ketone salt supplementation on repeated short-distance running time trial (TT) performance in well-trained subjects remain unknown. PURPOSE To determine the effects of 10-day exogenous ketone salt supplementation on two consecutive 800 m running TTs in endurance-trained subjects. METHODS Male and female subjects were randomly allocated to one of the following groups: Ketone (KET) (n = 16) or placebo (CON) (n = 16) (8 m, 8f per group). Subjects underwent two consecutive 800 m TTs before and after a 10-day treatment on a self-propelled treadmill. Time-to-completion of the first (TT1) and second (TT2) TT, the average time-to-completion (TTAVG), and blood lactate response during each TT was measured pre-post-treatment. Changes in blood ketone levels in response to a single dosing were measured pre- and post-treatment. Data was analyzed with a mixed factorial ANOVA with significance set to p < 0.05. RESULTS KET demonstrated a faster TTAVG from pre- to post-treatment (-6.1 ± 8.9 s; p = 0.02) while CON showed no change. At pre- and post-treatment, CON showed no acute changes in blood ketones after a single-dosing while KET demonstrated a significant increases (Pretreatment = +0.4 ± 0.3 mmol/L; p < 0.001; Post-Treatment = +0.4 ± 0.4 mmol/L; p < 0.001). These acute single-dosing responses in blood ketone levels for KET did not change between pre- and post-treatment. There were no interactions for blood lactate response to exercise or fatigue index. CONCLUSIONS In trained subjects, 10 days of ketone salt supplementation does not affect performance in an initial bout of short-distance running, such as during TT1. However, ergogenic effects may be observed under fatigue conditions for example during a repeated running bout.
Daily and Not Every-Other-Day Intake of Anthocyanin-Rich New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract Alters Substrate Oxidation during Moderate-Intensity Walking in Adult Males.
Journal of dietary supplements. 2022;(1):49-61
Daily intake of anthocyanin-rich New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract can enhance exercise-induced fat oxidation. It is not known whether habitual dietary anthocyanin intake and body composition affects blackcurrant-induced fat oxidation or even if daily intake is required. We examined effects of daily and every-other-day intake of NZBC extract on metabolic and physiological responses during moderate-intensity walking. Sixteen physically active males (age: 24 ± 6 yr, body mass: 78 ± 16 kg, BMI: 24.7 ± 4.2 kg·m-2, body fat: 15.2 ± 5.0%) volunteered. A randomized, cross-over design with a control condition was used and habitual dietary anthocyanin intake quantified. For intake conditions, participants consumed two capsules of NZBC extract (i.e. 210 mg of anthocyanins, CurraNZ™) with breakfast daily or every-other-day for 14 days (14-D and 14-EOD) with 14-days washout. Final two capsules were taken 2-hr before the walk (speed: 5.7 ± 0.7 km·hr-1). There was a trend for lower respiratory exchange ratio and carbohydrate oxidation with changes only for 14-D. Fat oxidation was increased only for 14-D (p < 0.05) with 50% of the participants more than a 10% change. In 14-D, there was a positive correlation for BMI and body fat % with the absolute change in fat oxidation but not with habitual dietary anthocyanin intake. Daily intake of NZBC extract is required to enhance exercise-induced fat oxidation. Enhanced exercise-induced fat oxidation by daily intake of NZBC extract is related to body composition but not to habitual dietary anthocyanin intake in physically active males. Daily anthocyanin intake seems to be required to allow the gradual build-up and maintenance of anthocyanin-derived metabolites that are required to alter mechanisms for exercise-induced substrate oxidation.
Management of anterior thigh injuries in soccer players: practical guide.
BMC sports science, medicine & rehabilitation. 2022;(1):41
Most of the anterior thigh injuries are contusions or strains, however, some of these injuries can be career ending. Early diagnosis and correct treatment are key to successful outcome. Analyzing injury mechanism and adding both clinical and imaging findings, clinicians can make the right treatment decisions already often in the acute phase of the injury. Low grade contusions and muscle strains are treated well with planned rehabilitation, but complete tendon injuries or avulsions can require operative treatment. Also, neglected minor injuries could lead to chronic disabilities and time lost from play. Typical clinical presentation of anterior thigh injury is swelling and pain during hip flexion or knee extension. In more severe cases a clear gap can be palpated. Imaging methods used are ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which are helpful for clinicians to determine more exact the extent of injury. MRI can identify possible tendon retractions which may need surgery. Clinicians should also be aware of other traumatic lesions affecting anterior thigh area such as myositis ossificans formation. Optimal treatment should be coordinated including acute phase treatment with rest, ice, and compression together with designed return-to-play protocol. The anatomical structure involved lines the treatment pathway. This narrative review describes these more common reasons for outpatient clinical visits for anterior thigh pain and injuries among soccer players.
Effectiveness of Physical Activity Interventions on Cognition, Neuropsychiatric Symptoms, and Quality of Life of Alzheimer's Disease: An Update of a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Frontiers in aging neuroscience. 2022;:830824
The topic of physical activity interventions for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been discussed for decades, but there are still inconsistent views on the effect of its intervention in different studies. With the increase in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), it is necessary to update newly published studies and systematically evaluate the effects of physical activity interventions. Scientific citation databases (e.g., PubMed, EMBASE, etc.) and registration databases (e.g., ISRCTN, CHICTR, etc.) were checked to screen RCTs and systematic reviews of physical activity interventions in AD. Then extract and review the intervention methods and their evaluation results in the included studies. Spearman correlation method was used to test the association between the mean difference (MD) of intervention results and activity time. The Hedges'g method was used to combine continuous data to analyze the standard MD (SMD) of different intervention types or time subgroups. The overall results show that physical activity intervention can improve the cognition, neuropsychiatric symptoms and quality of life (Qol) of AD patients, but the duration of the intervention significantly affected the outcome of the assessment. Subgroup analysis results showed that an intervention duration of 2-5 months had a significant advantage: cognitive function (Minimum Mental State Examination: SMD = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.33 ∼ 0.61, P < 0.01), neuropsychiatric symptoms (Neuropsychiatric Inventory: SMD = -0.48, 95% CI = -0.85 ∼-0.11, P < 0.01), and quality of life (Qol-AD: SMD = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.23 ∼ 0.71, P < 0.01). The systematic review and analysis results of updated RCTs suggested that short-term (2-5 months) physical activity interventions were more beneficial in improving cognitive function, neuropsychiatric symptoms and Qol in patients with AD. And there was no evidence of differences in the effectiveness of different physical activity interventions.
Return to Sport After Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine. 2022;(3):23259671221079285
Background: Patients undergoing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) often want to return to sport (RTS) after surgery. However, the time taken to RTS and proportion of patients who RTS after UKA remain unknown. Purpose: To determine the time to RTS and proportion of patients who RTS after UKA. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A search was performed using PubMed, Medline, Embase, SPORTDiscus and the Cochrane Library databases for clinical trials reporting on RTS after UKA published between database inception and September 2021. In addition, a manual search was performed of relevant sports medicine and orthopaedic journals, and bibliographies were reviewed for eligible trials. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines were used to undertake this study. Results: This meta-analysis included 11 studies (749 patients) that reported on RTS after UKA. The proportion of patients returning to sports increased over time: 6 studies (432 patients) demonstrated an overall pooled proportion of 48.1% (95% CI, 36.3%-60.2%) of patients who returned to sport at 3 months after surgery, while 7 studies (443 patients) demonstrated an overall pooled proportion of 76.5% (95% CI, 63.9%-87.1%) of patients who returned to sport at 6 months after surgery. Overall, 92.7% (95% CI, 85.8%-97.4%) of 749 patients were able to RTS at 4 years after surgery. Overall excellent patient-reported functional outcomes scores and low risk of complications with RTS after UKA were reported. Conclusion: The authors found that 48.1% of patients were able to RTS at 3 months after surgery and 76.5% were able to RTS at 6 months after UKA. Pooled proportion analysis showed that >90% of patients undergoing UKA were able to RTS at 48 months after surgery. The majority of patients who were able to RTS after UKA did so at a lower level of intensity than their preoperative level. RTS after UKA was associated with good patient-reported functional outcomes scores and a low risk of complications.
The birth of cardiac disease: Mechanisms linking gestational diabetes mellitus and early onset of cardiovascular disease in offspring.
WIREs mechanisms of disease. 2022;:e1555
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the biggest killer worldwide, composing a major economic burden for health care systems. Obesity and diabetes are dual epidemics on the rise and major risk factors predisposing for CVD. Increased obesity- and diabetes-related incidence is now observed among children, adolescents, and young adults. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common metabolic pregnancy disorder, and its prevalence is rapidly increasing. During pregnancies complicated by GDM, the offspring are exposed to a compromised intrauterine environment characterized by hyperglycemic periods. Unfavorable in utero conditions at critical periods of fetal cardiac development can produce developmental adaptations that remodel the cardiovascular system in a way that can contribute to adult-onset of heart disease due to the programming during fetal life. Epidemiological studies have reported increased cardiovascular complications among GDM-descendants, highlighting the urgent need to investigate and understand the mechanisms modulated during fetal development of in utero GDM-exposed offspring that predispose an individual to increased CVD during life. In this manuscript, we overview previous studies in this area and gather evidence linking GDM and CVD development in the offspring, providing new insights on novel mechanisms contributing to offspring CVD programming by GDM, from the role of maternal-fetal interactions to their impact on fetal cardiovascular development, how the perpetuation of cardiac programming is maintained in postnatal life, and advance the intergenerational implications contributing to increased CVD premature origin. Understanding the perpetuation of CVD can be the first step to manage and reverse this leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This article is categorized under: Reproductive System Diseases > Molecular and Cellular Physiology Cardiovascular Diseases > Molecular and Cellular Physiology Metabolic Diseases > Genetics/Genomics/Epigenetics.
A pragmatic preference trial of therapeutic yoga as an adjunct to group cognitive behaviour therapy versus group CBT alone for depression and anxiety.
Journal of affective disorders. 2022;:1-10
BACKGROUND Yoga has several mechanisms that make it a promising treatment for depression and anxiety, including physical activity, behavioural activation, and mindfulness. Following positive outcomes from adapted CBT interventions incorporating mindfulness-based practices, this study explored the effects of a therapeutic yoga program as an adjunct to group-based CBT for depression or anxiety. METHODS This was a pragmatic preference trial involving adults diagnosed with depression or anxiety in a regional primary mental healthcare service (n = 59), comparing transdiagnostic group CBT (n = 27) with transdiagnostic group CBT combined with an adjunct therapeutic yoga program (n = 32). A preference recruitment design allowed eligible participants (n = 35) to self-select into the adjunct program. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS) was assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and three-months follow up. RESULTS CBT + Yoga was an acceptable alternative to CBT alone. Significant reductions were observed in total DASS scores and the 3 subscales of the DASS for both groups, however CBT + Yoga showed significantly lower depressive and anxiety symptoms post-intervention, compared to CBT alone. CBT + Yoga also showed sustained reductions in depressive symptoms over three-months, and more rapid reductions in depressive symptoms, compared to CBT alone. LIMITATIONS These findings should be considered preliminary due to the moderate sample size, with a rigorous randomised control trial necessary to definitively support the integration of yoga within mental health care to augment the benefits and uptake of transdiagnostic CBT for depression and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS Complementing other mindfulness-based practices, therapeutic yoga shows promise as an adjunct to transdiagnostic CBT.
Managing Nutrition Impact Symptoms in Cancer Cachexia: A Case Series and Mini Review.
Frontiers in nutrition. 2022;:831934
Malnutrition is common in cancer patients and can occur throughout a patient's disease course. The contributors to the clinical syndrome of cancer cachexia are often multifactorial, and produced by the cancer and associated pro-inflammatory response. Since cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome, a multimodal therapeutic approach is ideal. A key component of therapy is identifying and managing symptom barriers to adequate oral intake, known as nutritional impact symptoms (NIS). NIS are associated with reduced intake and weight loss in patients with advanced cancer, and aggregate NIS are a predictor of survival in patients with Head and Neck Cancer and in patients undergoing surgery for esophageal cancer. Currently, there are no guidelines regarding the specific management of NIS in oncology patients. Experience from specialist centers suggest relatively simple assessments and inexpensive interventions are available for the diagnosis and treatment of NIS. We present three patient cases from a cachexia clinic, where NIS management decreased symptom burden and improved clinical outcomes such as weight and physical performance.
Serum metabolomic responses to aerobic exercise in rats under chronic unpredictable mild stress.
Scientific reports. 2022;(1):4888
This study analyzed the effects of aerobic exercise on endogenous serum metabolites in response to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) using a rat model, aiming to identify the metabolic regulatory pathways involved in the antidepressant effect resulted from a 28-day treadmill aerobic exercise intervention. The animals were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8): normal control, normal with aerobic exercise, CUMS control, and CUMS with aerobic exercise. Body weight, sucrose preference and open field tests were performed weekly during the intervention period for changes in depressant symptoms. Serum metabolic profiles obtained by using the LC-MS/MS metabolomics were analyzed to explore the regulatory mechanism for the effect of the aerobic exercise on depression. Behavior tests showed that the aerobic exercise resulted in a significant improvement in depression-like behavior in the CUMS rats. A total of 21 differential metabolites were identified as being associated with depression in serum metabolic profile, of which the aerobic exercise significantly modulated 15, mainly related to amino acid metabolism and energy metabolism. Collectively, this is the first study that LC-MS/MS techniques were used to reveal the modulatory effects of aerobic exercise on the serum metabolic profile of depressed rats and the findings further enriched our understanding of potential mechanisms of aerobic exercise interventions on depression.
The effect of exercise training on adipose tissue insulin sensitivity: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. 2022;:e13445
This systematic review and meta-analysis determined the impact of exercise training on adipose tissue insulin sensitivity in adults. Its scope extended to studies measuring whole-body and localized subcutaneous adipose tissue insulin sensitivity using validated techniques. Consensus from four studies demonstrates that exercise training improved whole-body adipose tissue insulin sensitivity when measured via stable-isotope lipid tracers (rate of appearance suppression in response to hyperinsulinemia). Meta-analysis of 20 studies (26 intervention arms) employing the adipose tissue insulin resistance index (ADIPO-IR) supported these findings (-10.63 [-14.12 to -7.15] pmol·L-1 × mmol·L-1 ). With ADIPO-IR, this response was greater in studies documenting weight loss and shorter sampling time (≤48 h) post-training. Overall, exercise training did not affect whole-body adipose tissue insulin sensitivity in seven studies (11 intervention arms) measuring the suppression of circulating non-esterified fatty acids in response to insulin infusion (1.51 [-0.12 to 3.14]%); however, subgroup analysis identified an enhanced suppression post-training in trials reporting weight loss. From four microdialysis studies, consensus indicates no effect of exercise training on localized (abdominal/femoral) adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, potentially suggesting that enhanced whole-body responses are related to improvements in central adipose depots. However, heterogeneity within microdialysis protocols dictates that findings must be viewed with caution.