Jump Training in Rugby Union Players: Barbell or Hexagonal Bar?
Journal of strength and conditioning research. 2021;(3):754-761
ABSTRACT Weakley, JJS, Till, K, Read, DB, Leduc, C, Roe, GAB, Phibbs, PJ, Darrall-Jones, J, and Jones, B. Jump training in rugby union players: barbell or hexagonal bar?. J Strength Cond Res 35(3): 754-761, 2021-The countermovement jump (CMJ) is an exercise that can develop athletic performance. Using the conventional barbell (BAR) and hexagonal barbell (HEX) while jumping, the intensity can be increased. However, the bar that provides greater adaptations is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to assess changes in loaded and unloaded CMJ with either a BAR or HEX across a 4-week mesocycle in rugby union players. Twenty-nine subjects were strength-matched and randomized into 2 groups. Subjects completed 3 sets of CMJ at 20% of 1 repetition maximum back squat, 3 times per week for 4 weeks, using either a BAR or HEX. Subjects completed an unloaded CMJ on a force plate before and after, whereas the highest peak concentric velocity during the jump squat was recorded in the first and last training sessions using a linear position transducer. Magnitude-based inferences assessed meaningful changes within- and between-groups. Possibly greater improvements in unloaded CMJ were found in the HEX group in jump height (effect size ± 90% confidence intervals: 0.27 ± 0.27), relative peak (0.21 ± 0.23), and mean power (0.32 ± 0.36). In addition, likely to very likely greater improvements were observed in the HEX group in peak velocity (0.33 ± 0.27), relative mean power (0.53 ± 0.30), mean force (0.47 ± 0.27), and 100-ms impulse (0.60 ± 0.48). Similar raw changes in jump squat peak velocity occurred (0.20-0.25 m·s-1), despite the likely greater ES occurring with the BAR (0.32 ± 0.26). These results indicate that training with the HEX leads to superior unloaded CMJ adaptations. In addition, practitioners should use either the HEX or BAR when aiming to enhance loaded jump ability.
A Single Bout of Premeal Resistance Exercise Improves Postprandial Glucose Metabolism in Obese Men with Prediabetes.
Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2021;(4):694-703
INTRODUCTION Prediabetes is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Although resistance exercise (RE) is recommended for individuals with prediabetes, the effects of RE on postprandial glucose metabolism in this population are poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to elucidate how RE affects postprandial glucose kinetics, insulin sensitivity, beta cell function, and glucose oxidation during the subsequent meal in sedentary men with obesity and prediabetes. METHODS We studied 10 sedentary men with obesity (body mass index, 33 ± 3 kg·m-2) and prediabetes by using a randomized, cross-over study design. After an overnight fast, participants completed either a single bout of whole-body RE (seven exercises, 3 sets of 10-12 repetitions at 80% one-repetition maximum each) or an equivalent period of rest. Participants subsequently completed a mixed meal test in conjunction with an intravenous [6,6-2H2]glucose infusion to determine basal and postprandial glucose rate of appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd) from plasma, insulin sensitivity, and the insulinogenic index (a measure of beta cell function). Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained 90 min postmeal to evaluate pyruvate-supported and maximal mitochondrial respiration. Whole-body carbohydrate oxidation was assessed using indirect calorimetry. RESULTS RE significantly reduced the postprandial rise in glucose Ra and plasma glucose concentration. Postprandial insulin sensitivity was significantly greater after RE, whereas postprandial plasma insulin concentration was significantly reduced. RE had no effect on the insulinogenic index, postprandial pyruvate respiration, or carbohydrate oxidation. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION A single bout of RE has beneficial effects on postprandial glucose metabolism in men with obesity and prediabetes by increasing postprandial insulin sensitivity, reducing the postprandial rise in glucose Ra, and reducing postprandial plasma insulin concentration.
A randomized controlled trial testing the effects of a positive front-of-pack label with or without a physical activity equivalent label on food purchases.
BACKGROUND Positive front-of-pack (FOP) labels, including Singapore's Healthier Choice Symbol (HCS), target a subset of healthier products whose consumption is to be encouraged. However, this may inadvertently lead to excess caloric intake, which could be addressed by including an additional label identifying calories per serving. We test this hypothesis by adding a Physical Activity Equivalent (PAE) label, an indicator of calorie content, to all products available in an on-line grocery store. METHODS We conducted a randomized controlled trial using a 3 arm within-subject crossover design in adult Singapore residents recruited online. Participants shopped once in each condition in an experimental online grocery store in random order: 1) no FOP label (Control); 2) Select products displaying HCS labels (HCS-only); 3) Condition 2 with additional information displaying PAEs per serving on every product (HCS+PAE). 117 participants were recruited and data from 317 shops were analyzed. We used first-differenced regressions to assess the impact of the conditions on calories per serving (primary) and on other measures of diet quality. RESULTS The HCS-only condition led to a statistically significant five-percentage point increase in the proportion of HCS products purchased (95% CI, 1%: 9%). However, neither the HCS-only (3.45; 95% CI, -12.52: 19.43) nor HCS + PAE (8.14; 95% CI, -5.25: 21.54) condition led to a change in the number of calories per serving purchased or changes in other measures of diet quality. CONCLUSIONS Positive labels, like the HCS, are likely to increase purchases of labelled products. However, these changes may not lead to improvements in diet quality or calorie intake. Combining positive labels with additional PAE information does not appear to address this concern.
Efficacy of a proprioceptive exercise program in patients with nonspecific neck pain: a randomized controlled trial.
European journal of physical and rehabilitation medicine. 2021;(3):397-405
BACKGROUND Nonspecific neck pain is associated with chronic pain, disability, reduced cervical mobility, postural control disorders and impaired proprioceptive control. AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two therapeutic exercise programs (i.e. cervical proprioception and cervical mobility) in reducing pain and disability in individuals with nonspecific neck pain. We further aimed to compare the effectiveness of the two treatments in improving pressure pain threshold, cervical range of motion and head repositioning accuracy. DESIGN This study was designed as a randomized controlled trial. SETTING This study took place in a private rehabilitation clinic. POPULATION Forty-two participants diagnosed with nonspecific neck pain, aged 18-65 years, were randomized to a cervical mobility group (N.=22) or a proprioception group (N.=20). METHODS The cervical mobility group combined a passive treatment and active mobility exercises, whereas the Proprioception group combined a passive treatment and proprioceptive exercises. Pain intensity, disability, pressure pain threshold, range of motion, and head repositioning accuracy were assessed at baseline and after 10 sessions. RESULTS Pain intensity and disability significantly improved for both interventions (p<0.01), but such improvement was greater for pain intensity in the proprioception group than in the cervical mobility group (P<0.01). Pressure pain threshold, range of motion and head repositioning accuracy improved only in the proprioception group (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS A program based on cervical proprioception exercises demonstrated to improve pain, disability, pressure pain threshold, range of motion and head repositioning accuracy in patients with nonspecific neck pain. However, a program based on cervical mobility exercises only showed to improve pain intensity and disability, while such improvement was not clinically relevant. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT The proprioceptive exercise program may be considered as the treatment of choice in patients with nonspecific neck pain.
Evaluation of the impact of a nurse-led program of patient self-assessment and self-management in axial spondyloarthritis: results of a prospective, multicentre, randomized, controlled trial (COMEDSPA).
Rheumatology (Oxford, England). 2021;(2):888-895
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of a nurse-led program of self-management and self-assessment of disease activity in axial spondyloarthritis. METHODS Prospective, randomized, controlled, open, 12-month trial (NCT02374749). Participants were consecutive axial spondyloarthritis patients (according to the rheumatologist) and nurses having participated in a 1-day training meeting. The program included self-management: educational video and specific video of graduated, home-based exercises for patients; and self-assessment: video presenting the rationale of tight monitoring of disease activity with composite scores (Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease activity Score, ASDAS/Bath Ankyslosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, BASDAI). The nurse trained patients to collect, calculate and report (monthly) ASDAS/BASDAI. Treatment allocation was by random allocation to this program or a comorbidities assessment (not presented here and considered here as the control group). RESULTS A total of 502 patients (250 and 252 in the active and control groups, respectively) were enrolled (age: 46.7 (12.2) years, male gender: 62.7%, disease duration: 13.7 (11.0) years). After the one-year follow-up period, the adherence to the self-assessment program was considered good (i.e. 79% reported scores >6 times). Despite a lack of statistical significance in the primary outcome (e.g. coping) there was a statistically significant difference in favor of this program for the following variables: change in BASDAI, number and duration of the home exercises in the active group, and physical activity (international physical activity score, IPAQ). CONCLUSION This study suggests a short-term benefit of a nurse-led program on self-management and self-assessment for disease activity in a young axial spondyloarthritis population in terms of disease activity, exercises and physical activity.
Increased Duration of Exercise Decreases Rate of Nonresponse to Exercise but May Not Decrease Risk for Cancer Mortality.
Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2021;(5):928-935
INTRODUCTION Previous studies have observed an inverse relationship between exercise and breast cancer risk. However, there is interindividual variability in response to exercise training interventions. We investigated whether increasing the dose of aerobic exercise (150 or 300 min·wk-1), while keeping intensity of exercise constant (70%-80% HRmax), decreases the number of exercise nonresponders and further decreases associated risk for cancer mortality in our study population of women genetically predisposed for breast cancer. METHODS Healthy premenopausal women at elevated risk of breast cancer were randomized into control (<75 min·wk-1, n = 47), low-dose exercise (150 min·wk-1, n = 39), and high-dose exercise groups (300 min·wk-1, n = 39) for approximately 6 months. We assessed 1) clinical effectiveness (CE), defined as an improvement in predicted V˙O2max of ≥1 mL·kg-1·min-1, and twice the typical error (2× TE) of V˙O2max as thresholds to classify exercise "nonresponders"; 2) CE and 2× TE relative to exercise adherence levels; and 3) related changes in V˙O2max to predicted cancer mortality risk. RESULTS After our 6-month intervention, we observed that 23.5% of women in the low-dose group and 5.6% of women in the high-dose group were clinical nonresponders (P = 0.04). Clinical nonresponder status was independent of adherence level. Associated reduction in risk for cancer mortality was observed among 87.2% of women in the low-dose group and 94.9% in the high-dose group (P = 0.43). CONCLUSION Increasing volume (not intensity) of exercise via time spent exercising significantly decreases the number of "nonresponders." True nonresponders were observed as some women did not improve their fitness capacity despite high exercise adherence levels. Lastly, it appears 150 min·wk-1 is sufficient to decrease the predicted risk of cancer mortality.
Safety and Efficacy of Omaveloxolone in Friedreich Ataxia (MOXIe Study).
Annals of neurology. 2021;(2):212-225
OBJECTIVE Friedreich ataxia (FA) is a progressive genetic neurodegenerative disorder with no approved treatment. Omaveloxolone, an Nrf2 activator, improves mitochondrial function, restores redox balance, and reduces inflammation in models of FA. We investigated the safety and efficacy of omaveloxolone in patients with FA. METHODS We conducted an international, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, registrational phase 2 trial at 11 institutions in the United States, Europe, and Australia (NCT02255435, EudraCT2015-002762-23). Eligible patients, 16 to 40 years of age with genetically confirmed FA and baseline modified Friedreich's Ataxia Rating Scale (mFARS) scores between 20 and 80, were randomized 1:1 to placebo or 150mg per day of omaveloxolone. The primary outcome was change from baseline in the mFARS score in those treated with omaveloxolone compared with those on placebo at 48 weeks. RESULTS One hundred fifty-five patients were screened, and 103 were randomly assigned to receive omaveloxolone (n = 51) or placebo (n = 52), with 40 omaveloxolone patients and 42 placebo patients analyzed in the full analysis set. Changes from baseline in mFARS scores in omaveloxolone (-1.55 ± 0.69) and placebo (0.85 ± 0.64) patients showed a difference between treatment groups of -2.40 ± 0.96 (p = 0.014). Transient reversible increases in aminotransferase levels were observed with omaveloxolone without increases in total bilirubin or other signs of liver injury. Headache, nausea, and fatigue were also more common among patients receiving omaveloxolone. INTERPRETATION In the MOXIe trial, omaveloxolone significantly improved neurological function compared to placebo and was generally safe and well tolerated. It represents a potential therapeutic agent in FA. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:212-225.
The Effect of Family Member Attendance at Bariatric Surgery Appointments on Patient and Family Weight-Related Outcomes.
Obesity surgery. 2021;(3):1073-1081
PURPOSE To assess the effect of family member attendance at routine pre- and postoperative appointments on early postoperative patients' weight loss and physical activity levels and family members' weight control practices. MATERIALS AND METHODS As part of a RCT, patients were randomized to (1) invite a romantic partner or cohabitating family member to attend routine appointments (FA arm) or (2) proceed with treatment as usual (TAU arm). Patients in FA arm were asked to invite their family member to attend four routine appointments (T1 = pre-surgery class, T2 = 1 month pre-surgery, T3 = 2 weeks post-surgery, T4 = 2 months post-surgery). Assessments of patients' percent excess weight loss (%EWL), change in body mass index (ΔBMI), and levels of physical activity and family members' weight control practices (dietary control, self-monitoring, physical activity, and psychological coping) were conducted at T1-T4 with all dyads, and attendance was documented. Of the 213 dyads approached, 63 dyads consented to participate. RESULTS There were no significant differences in patient outcomes between FA and TAU arms or based on consistent attendance of family members. There were no significant differences in weight control practices between FA and TAU dyads. At T3 and T4, family members with consistent attendance reported higher self-monitoring, physical activity, and psychological control practices. Family members with consistent attendance reported significant increases in physical activity and psychological control practices from T1 to T4. CONCLUSIONS Family member attendance at routine appointments had greater positive effects on family members rather than on patient outcomes.
Effect of one session of aerobic exercise associated with abdominal laser therapy in lipolytic activity, lipid profile, and inflammatory markers.
Journal of cosmetic dermatology. 2021;(6):1714-1723
BACKGROUND Increased abdominal fat and sedentary lifestyles contribute to cardiovascular disease risk. The combination of exercise and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) appears to be an innovative method to increase the lipolytic rate of abdominal adipocytes, in order to reduce abdominal fat. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effect of one session of aerobic exercise associated with abdominal laser therapy in lipolytic activity, profile lipid, and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein-CRP). METHODS Experimental randomized controlled study in 36 participants of female sex divided into three groups: placebo group (PG) (n = 12), experimental group 1 (EG1) (n = 11), and experimental group 2 (EG2) (n = 13). The EG1 and EG2 performed the laser therapy protocol followed by 50 minutes of aerobic exercise on cycle ergometer, of 45%-55% of reserve heart rate; however, in EG2 the laser therapy was applied without power. The PG only performed the laser therapy protocol without power. The anthropometric measures were evaluated, and all participants were subject to blood samples at the beginning and at the end of the intervention for measure glycerol, lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL), and CRP. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the groups in the quantitative variables and Fisher's test to compare the groups in the qualitative variables. To compare the variables between moments (M0 and M1), we used the t test for paired samples. RESULTS In the group that performed physical exercise and lipolytic laser and in the group that performs only physical exercise, there was a significant increase in glycerol mobilization between M0 and M1 (P < .001). The same did not occur in the placebo group. Regarding the CRP levels and lipidic profile, no significant differences were observed between moments in the experimental groups. CONCLUSION It is concluded that one session of aerobic exercise associated with LLLT and one session of aerobic exercise appears to be able to increase the lipolytic activity. However, it appears that LLLT does not provide increased value to the aerobic physical exercise by itself in lipolysis process.
Additivity of apparent and standardised ileal digestibility of phosphorus in corn and canola meal mixed diets; basal endogenous loss of phosphorus responses to phytase and age in broiler chickens.
British poultry science. 2021;(2):244-250
1. The additivity of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of phosphorus (P) in mixed diets containing corn and canola meal (CCM) with or without phytase supplementation and the impact of age on the basal ileal endogenous loss (BEL) of P were investigated in broiler chickens.2. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial with two ages (13 d or 21 d post hatching), three diets (corn, canola meal, or CCM), and two phytase levels (0 or 1,000 FYT/kg diet) in a randomised complete block design. There were eight or six birds per cage at 13 d and 21 d of age, respectively, and six replicate cages per treatment, with a total of 588 birds. A P-free diet (PFD) treatment was included at each age to determine the basal endogenous loss (BEL) of P.3. Birds were fed a commercial starter diet from d 1 to d 10 or d 18 and then fed the experimental diets for 3 d until d 13 or d 21, respectively. Predicted digestibility values calculated from the individual feed ingredients were used to test additivity in the mixed diets. Chromium oxide was included in diets as an indigestible marker.4. The ileal digesta, collected from birds at d 13 or d 21, was used to determine nutrient digestibility.5. The AID and SID of P at d 13 was higher (P < 0.01) when compared with older birds at d 21, regardless of dietary phytase supplementation. Regardless of age or phytase supplementation, AID and SID of P were additive, as there were no differences between predicted and determined values in the mixed diets. The BEL of P (g/kg DM intake) in birds at d 13 was higher (P < 0.05) than birds at d 21 (0.197 vs. 0.159).6. In conclusion, age had an impact on the BEL of P and the utilisation of minerals in the diets. The apparent and standardised ileal digestibility of P in the mixed diet containing corn and canola meal were additive, regardless of age or phytase supplementation.