Dietary Diversity Was Positively Associated with Psychological Resilience among Elders: A Population-Based Study.
Plain language summary
There's a growing interest by researchers in the relationship between the diversity of people's diets and their health, including their psychological resilience. This study looked at the associations between dietary diversity (DD) and psychological resilience in 8571 elderly individuals in China. Frequency and variety of food groups was collected in order to produce an average (mean) DD score. The psychological resilience of participants was assessed using a validated research tool known as "simplified resilience score" (SRS). The statistical analysis of the data collected showed that those elders with the poorest psychological resilience scores were also eating the least diverse diets. Based on separate analyses by age group, the association of a low SRS with poor DD was more prominent in the younger elderly than the oldest old. Compared with younger participants with good DD, the risk of a low SRS was greater for younger participants with poor DD, the oldest old with good DD, and the oldest old with poor DD, with OR respectively. The greatest contribution to DD was from a high consumption of vegetables, fruits, and nuts. Our study suggested that poor DD was associated with a low psychological resilience among the Chinese elderly, especially the younger elderly. These findings suggest that eating a diet rich in a variety of vegetables, fruits, and nuts might promote psychological resilience.
Conflicts of interest:
No conflicts of interests to disclose.
This is a population-based study involving 8571 community-based elderly individuals, where dietary diversity (DD) was assessed by means of food frequency questionnaires, and correlated with psychological resilience, assessed by a validated simplified resilience score (SRS). Low DD has been previously correlated with a high level of oxidative stress mediating oxidative damage to mitochondria and lipids in neuronal circuits, as seen
in affective (anxiety, depression) and neurodegenerative conditions (Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases). Conversely, dietary polyphenols, a group of phenolic compounds abundant in fruits, vegetables, and other plant sources, have been associated with improved psychological resilience.
Implications for practice:
The greatest contribution to dietary diversity from the totality of food groups was from a high consumption of vegetables, fruits, and nuts. This can help nutrition practitioners inform their clinical decisions when supporting individuals wanting to improve the diversity of their diet.
Implications for research:
Future work is necessary to further assess these findings in longitudinal studies and clinical trials, and to ascertain what the mechanisms of action are in this process. It would be particularly interesting to find out whether the gut microbiota and its communication with the brain via the gut-brain axis is part in the process.
undefined: The association between dietary diversity (DD) and psychological resilience among older people is an underdeveloped area of research. This cross-sectional study explored the associations of DD with psychological resilience among 8571 community-based elderly individuals. The intake frequencies of food groups were collected, and dietary diversity was assessed based on the mean DD score. Psychological resilience was assessed using a simplified resilience score (SRS). Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression and logistic regression models. Poor DD was significantly associated with psychological resilience, with a β (95% CI) of -0.94 (-1.07, -0.81) for the SRS ( < 0.01) and an odds ratio (95% CI) of 1.83 (1.66, 2.01) for low SRS status. The interaction effects of age with DD were observed for the SRS ( < 0.001) and low SRS status ( < 0.001). Based on separate analyses by age group, the association of a low SRS with poor DD was more prominent in the younger elderly than the oldest old, with OR (95% CI) 2.32 (1.96, 2.74) and 1.61 (1.43, 1.82), respectively. Compared with younger participants with good DD, the risk of a low SRS was greater for younger participants with poor DD, the oldest old with good DD, and the oldest old with poor DD, with OR (95% CI) 2.39 (2.02, 2.81), 1.28 (1.09, 1.51), and 2.03 (1.72, 2.39), respectively. The greatest contribution to DD was from a high consumption of vegetables, fruits, and nuts. Our study suggested that poor DD was associated with a low psychological resilience among the Chinese elderly, especially the younger elderly. These findings suggest that augmentation of DD might promote psychological resilience.
Neurological Manifestations of Neuropathy and Ataxia in Celiac Disease: A Systematic Review.
Plain language summary
Coeliac disease (CD) is a chronic, immune-mediated enteropathy in which dietary gluten triggers an inflammatory reaction of the small intestine in genetically predisposed individuals. The clinical presentation of the disease varies broadly and may include both intestinal symptoms and extra-intestinal manifestations, including iron-deficiency anaemia, osteoporosis, dermatitis herpetiformis, and neurological disorders, such as peripheral neuropathies and ataxia (a condition that affects co-ordination, balance and speech). Many patients who present with neurological manifestations of CD have no gastrointestinal symptoms, commonly leading to a delay in diagnosis. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the prevalence of peripheral neuropathies and gluten ataxia. Nine studies on gluten ataxia and 13 on gluten neuropathy were included in this review. The prevalence of both, neuropathy and ataxia, in the general population is very low, but this risk is increased in patients with CD. Estimates of the prevalence of neuropathy in CD patients ranged from 0% to 39%, with an increased risk in older and female patients. Prevalence of gluten ataxia varied from 0% to 6%. Symptoms of gluten neuropathy improve when patients with CD follow a gluten free diet (GFD), whilst the benefits of a GFD for ataxia vary between studies, possibly due to differences in study design. The authors note that this review primarily concentrated on patients with CD (i.e. those with evidence of enteropathy). However, neurological manifestations may exist in the presence of anti-gliadin antibodies alone (gluten sensitivity without evidence of enteropathy), and such patients benefit equally from a GFD. The authors conclude that patients with CD have an increased risk of gluten ataxia and gluten neuropathy, and that clinicians should check for gluten sensitivity in patients with ataxia and neuropathy of unknown origin.
Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated gastrointestinal disorder driven by innate and adaptive immune responses to gluten. Patients with CD are at an increased risk of several neurological manifestations, frequently peripheral neuropathy and gluten ataxia. A systematic literature review of the most commonly reported neurological manifestations (neuropathy and ataxia) associated with CD was performed. MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and conference proceedings were systematically searched from January 2007 through September 2018. Included studies evaluated patients with CD with at least one neurological manifestation of interest and reported prevalence, and/or incidence, and/or clinical outcomes. Sixteen studies were included describing the risk of gluten neuropathy and/or gluten ataxia in patients with CD. Gluten neuropathy was a neurological manifestation in CD (up to 39%) in 13 studies. Nine studies reported a lower risk and/or prevalence of gluten ataxia with a range of 0%⁻6%. Adherence to a gluten-free diet appeared to improve symptoms of both neuropathy and ataxia. The prevalence of gluten neuropathy and gluten ataxia in patients with CD varied in reported studies, but the increased risk supports the need for physicians to consider CD in patients with ataxia and neurological manifestations of unknown etiology.
Emotional Eating, Health Behaviours, and Obesity in Children: A 12-Country Cross-Sectional Study.
Plain language summary
Childhood obesity rates are high in both developed and developing countries. The most important contributors are the increased availability of energy-dense foods and a reduced need for physical activity. The aim of the study was to examine the association between self-reported emotional eating, health behaviours and body mass index in 9 to 11-year-old children. The study is a secondary analysis of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and Environment. The cross-sectional sample included 5,426 children with an age range between 9 to 11-year-olds. Results indicate a positive association between emotional eating and an unhealthy diet pattern, which was consistent in all 12 different study sites. Authors conclude that the association between emotional eating and an unhealthy eating pattern is not restricted to Western countries and their cultural and food environments.
undefined: Eating in response to negative emotions (emotional eating, EE) may predispose an individual to obesity. Yet, it is not well known how EE in children is associated with body mass index (BMI) and health behaviours (i.e., diet, physical activity, sleep, and TV-viewing). In the present study, we examined these associations in a cross-sectional sample of 5426 (54% girls) 9⁻11-year-old children from 12 countries and five continents. EE, food consumption, and TV-viewing were measured using self-administered questionnaires, and physical activity and nocturnal sleep duration were measured with accelerometers. BMI was calculated using measured weights and heights. EE factor scores were computed using confirmatory factor analysis, and dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis. The associations of EE with health behaviours and BMI -scores were analyzed using multilevel models including age, gender, and household income as covariates. EE was positively and consistently (across 12 study sites) associated with an unhealthy dietary pattern (β = 0.29, SE = 0.02, < 0.0001), suggesting that the association is not restricted to Western countries. Positive associations between EE and physical activity and TV viewing were not consistent across sites. Results tended to be similar in boys and girls. EE was unrelated to BMI in this sample, but prospective studies are needed to determine whether higher EE in children predicts the development of undesirable dietary patterns and obesity over time.
Exploring Associations between Interindividual Differences in Taste Perception, Oral Microbiota Composition, and Reported Food Intake.
Plain language summary
There are many known drivers of food choice and habits, however, taste is considered one of the main predictors. Each taste quality is associated with diﬀerent nutritional or physiological requirements or indicates a potential dietary risk. The main aim of this study was to explore whether variation in gustatory functions among individuals could be related to diﬀerent dietary patterns and intake. A secondary aim was to examine the relationship between gustatory functions and dietary patterns in relation to oral microbiota composition. The study recruited 59 (27 male and 32 female) healthy, normal-weight volunteers aged between 18 and 30 years of age. Seven concentrations for each taste stimulus were prepared to determine the recognition thresholds. Results indicate that: (i) recognition thresholds for the basic tastes were associated with each other, even though in diﬀerent ways, (ii) interindividual diﬀerences in taste perception may inﬂuence habitual food consumption and intake, and (iii) there are gender-related diﬀerences in food consumption frequency and intake. Authors conclude that nongenetic factors, such as the oral bacteria lining the tongue, should be adequately considered in order to gain new insights into taste-related eating habits that may inﬂuence long-term health outcomes.
The role of taste perception, its relationship with oral microbiota composition, and their putative link with eating habits and food intake were the focus of the present study. A sample of 59 reportedly healthy adults (27 male, 32 female; age: 23.3 ± 2.6 years) were recruited for the study and taste thresholds for basic tastes, food intake, and oral microbiota composition were evaluated. Differences in taste perception were associated with different habitual food consumption (i.e., frequency) and actual intake. Subjects who were orally hyposensitive to salty taste reported consuming more bakery and salty baked products, saturated-fat-rich products, and soft drinks than hypersensitive subjects. Subjects hyposensitive to sweet taste reported consuming more frequently sweets and desserts than the hypersensitive group. Moreover, subjects hypersensitive to bitter taste showed higher total energy and carbohydrate intakes compared to those who perceived the solution as less bitter. Some bacterial taxa on tongue dorsum were associated with gustatory functions and with vegetable-rich (e.g., Prevotella) or protein/fat-rich diets (e.g., Clostridia). Future studies will be pivotal to confirm the hypothesis and the potential exploitation of oral microbiome as biomarker of long-term consumption of healthy or unhealthy diets.