Dietary carbohydrate restriction augments weight loss-induced improvements in glycaemic control and liver fat in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial.
Plain language summary
The carbohydrate restricted diet has been shown to be beneficial for Type 2 diabetes (T2D) management and reducing cardiovascular disease risk. This open-label, parallel randomised controlled trial involved Type 2 diabetic patients taking antidiabetic medications who restricted their energy intake by following either a carbohydrate-reduced high protein diet or a conventional diabetic diet. Participants in both groups had a 5.9% reduction in body weight, similar changes in fasting NEFA, apoB, apoA-1, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol, and a significant reduction in fasting glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and HOMA2-IR after 6 weeks of intervention. Carbohydrate-reduced high protein diet group showed a greater reduction in HbA1c and diurnal mean glucose, glycaemic variability, fasting triacylglycerol concentration and liver fat content. Carbohydrate-reduced high protein diet caused an adverse reaction in some patients, and those following a carbohydrate-reduced high protein diet excreted more urea than those eating a conventional diabetic diet. To confirm the results of this study, long-term robust studies are needed. This study can assist healthcare professionals in understanding the benefits of following a carbohydrate-reduced high protein diet in improving glycaemic control, triglyceride levels, and reducing body weight in Type 2 diabetes patients.
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Lifestyle modification and weight loss are cornerstones of type 2 diabetes management. However, carbohydrate restriction may have weight-independent beneficial effects on glycaemic control. This has been difficult to demonstrate because low-carbohydrate diets readily decrease body weight. We hypothesised that carbohydrate restriction enhances the beneficial metabolic effects of weight loss in type 2 diabetes. METHODS This open-label, parallel RCT included adults with type 2 diabetes, HbA1c 48-97 mmol/mol (6.5-11%), BMI >25 kg/m2, eGFR >30 ml min-1 [1.73 m]-2 and glucose-lowering therapy restricted to metformin or dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. Participants were randomised by a third party and assigned to 6 weeks of energy restriction (all foods were provided) aiming at ~6% weight loss with either a carbohydrate-reduced high-protein diet (CRHP, percentage of total energy intake [E%]: CH30/P30/F40) or a conventional diabetes diet (CD, E%: CH50/P17/F33). Fasting blood samples, continuous glucose monitoring and magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to assess glycaemic control, lipid metabolism and intrahepatic fat. Change in HbA1c was the primary outcome; changes in circulating and intrahepatic triacylglycerol were secondary outcomes. Data were collected at Copenhagen University Hospital (Bispebjerg and Herlev). RESULTS Seventy-two adults (CD 36, CRHP 36, all white, 38 male sex) with type 2 diabetes (mean duration 8 years, mean HbA1c 57 mmol/mol [7.4%]) and mean BMI of 33 kg/m2 were enrolled, of which 67 (CD 33, CRHP 34) completed the study. Body weight decreased by 5.8 kg (5.9%) in both groups after 6 weeks. Compared with the CD diet, the CRHP diet further reduced HbA1c (mean [95% CI] -1.9 [-3.5, -0.3] mmol/mol [-0.18 (-0.32, -0.03)%], p = 0.018) and diurnal mean glucose (mean [95% CI] -0.8 [-1.2, -0.4] mmol/l, p < 0.001), stabilised glucose excursions by reducing glucose CV (mean [95% CI] -4.1 [-5.9, -2.2]%, p < 0.001), and augmented the reductions in fasting triacylglycerol concentration (by mean [95% CI] -18 [-29, -6]%, p < 0.01) and liver fat content (by mean [95% CI] -26 [-45, 0]%, p = 0.051). However, pancreatic fat content was decreased to a lesser extent by the CRHP than the CD diet (mean [95% CI] 33 [7, 65]%, p = 0.010). Fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA2-IR and cholesterol concentrations (total, LDL and HDL) were reduced significantly and similarly by both diets. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION Moderate carbohydrate restriction for 6 weeks modestly improved glycaemic control, and decreased circulating and intrahepatic triacylglycerol levels beyond the effects of weight loss itself compared with a CD diet in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Concurrent differences in protein and fat intakes, and the quality of dietary macronutrients, may have contributed to these results and should be explored in future studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03814694. FUNDING The study was funded by Arla Foods amba, The Danish Dairy Research Foundation, and Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg Frederiksberg.
Low omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids predict reduced response to standard antidepressants in patients with major depressive disorder.
Depression and anxiety. 2022
Plain language summary
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability, and antidepressant drug treatment is only effective in over half of patients with a high prevalence of treatment resistance. The importance of nutrition in mental health is gaining recognition. Omega-3 is an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) vital for anti-inflammatory processes and brain integrity. In the absence of the body's ability to make Omega-3, it or its precursors must be acquired from the diet. Yet altered metabolic pathways can hamper the process and the adequate balance with PUFA Omega‐6 is also crucial, as elevated levels of Omega-6 are linked to several diseases. An extensive amount of research suggests that higher Omega-3 levels reduce the occurrence of depression. Yet results using just Omega-3s for depression have been varied. This European-wide study sought to investigate how the PUFA status could affect the clinical response to treatment with antidepressants. 60-adults with an average age of 41 with major depressive disorders received antidepressive treatment. Their red blood cell fatty acids content was determined, and at the end of the 8-week trial treatment responders and non-responders were identified. Findings affirmed the existing knowledge that depressive symptoms are strongly associated with PUFA status. Patients who did not respond to treatment showed low levels of Omega-3 and an unfavourable ratio of Omega-3 to Omega-6 at the start of treatment. Higher levels of Omega-3 fatty acid of DHA seemed to produce a better clinical response to treatments than the Omega-3 of EPA. The authors discussed some potential mechanisms and suggested that PUFA intake and metabolism could be a potential tool for the management of treatment-unresponsive patients with depression. This review highlights the clinical importance of considering PUFA status and metabolism in the support of major depressive disorders.
BACKGROUND Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by a high rate of treatment resistance. Omega (ω)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were shown to correlate with depressive phenotype both in rodents and in humans. However, few studies to date have investigated the role of PUFAs in antidepressant response. The primary aim of this study was to assess the link between baseline PUFA composition and changes in depressive symptoms as well as antidepressant response in a multicenter study of depressed patients. METHODS Sixty depressed adults who met criteria for MDD according to DSM-IV-TR were recruited. Neuropsychiatric evaluations occurred at baseline and after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment with standard antidepressants, including escitalopram (N = 45), sertraline (N = 13) and venlafaxine (N = 2). At study endpoint, patients were stratified into responders (R) or non-responders (NR) based on their MADRS (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale) score. Baseline PUFA levels were assessed and their association with clinical response was determined. RESULTS Lower ω-3 PUFA levels were associated to worse baseline symptomatology. Baseline levels of PUFAs were significantly different between R and NR, with R exhibiting lower docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and ω-3 index; and higher ω-6/ω-3 ratio than NR before the start of antidepressant treatment. DHA levels as well as the ω-3 index and ω-6/ω-3 ratio significantly predicted response to antidepressants at study endpoint. CONCLUSIONS These results show that baseline levels of PUFAs predict later response to standard antidepressants in depressed subjects. They suggest that PUFA intake and/or metabolism represent a novel modifiable tool for the management of unresponsive depressed patients.
HOMEFOOD randomised trial - Six-month nutrition therapy improves quality of life, self-rated health, cognitive function, and depression in older adults after hospital discharge.
Clinical nutrition ESPEN. 2022;48:74-81
Plain language summary
It is well known that older people are at a higher risk for nutritional inadequacy which is accompanied by depression, impaired cognitive function, and poor overall health. In this secondary analysis of a randomised controlled assessor-blinded dietary intervention trial, the authors examined the effects of six months of nutritional therapy on quality of life, self-rated health, cognitive function, and depression in elderly patients aged 65 years and over. The participants in the intervention group received nutritional therapy (HOMEFOOD) education to overcome malnutrition, which included dietary recommendations to ensure an adequate nutritional intake of energy and protein through diet and additional supplemental protein and energy-rich foods. After six months of nutritional therapy, the intervention group showed improvement in cognitive function, self-rated health, depression score, and quality of life scores, as well as improvements in measures related to weight gain. Further studies need to be conducted in order to determine if nutritional therapy provides additional benefits to older people. However, healthcare professionals can use the results of this study to better understand how nutritional therapy can improve the quality of life and health of older people in comparison to standard care, so they can better advise their patients.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Malnutrition is common among older adults and is related to quality of life, cognitive function, and depression. To what extent nutrition interventions can improve these outcomes remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nutrition therapy on health-related quality of life (EQ-5D), self-rated health, cognitive function, and depression in community dwelling older adults recently discharged from hospital. METHODS Participants (>65 years) were randomised into an intervention (n = 53) and a control group (n = 53). The intervention group received individualised nutrition therapy based on the nutrition care process including 5 home visits and 3 phone calls, in combination with freely delivered energy- and protein-rich foods and oral nutrition supplements for six months after hospital discharge. EQ-5D, self-rated health, Mini-Mental-State-Examination (MMSE), and the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression - IOWA (CES-D) scale were measured at baseline and at endpoint. RESULTS Two subjects dropped out, one from each arm. The control group experienced an increase in depressive symptoms and a decrease in self-rated health during the study period, while the intervention group experienced increases in cognitive function, self-rated health, and EQ-5D resulting in significant endpoint differences between the groups: EQ-5D (0.102, P = 0.001); self-rated health: 15.876 (P < 0.001); MMSE 1.701 (P < 0.001); depressive symptoms: - 3.072 (P < 0.001); all in favour of the intervention group. Improvements during the intervention in MMSE, self-rated health, and CES-D were significantly related to body weight gain in a linear way. CONCLUSION Cognitive function and mental well-being worsen or stagnate in older adults who receive standard care after hospital discharge. However, a six-month nutrition therapy improves these outcomes leading to statistically and clinically significant endpoint differences between the groups. As improvements were related to body weight gain after hospital discharge, we conclude that the increase in dietary intake, with focus on energy and protein density, and changes in body weight might have contributed to better cognitive function and mental well-being in older adults after the intervention.
The potential prolonged effect at one-year follow-up after 18-month randomized controlled trial of a 90 g/day low-carbohydrate diet in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Nutrition & diabetes. 2022;12(1):17
Plain language summary
A low carbohydrate diet (LCD) could be an effective dietary strategy for managing Type 2 Diabetes and body weight. This follow-up of a randomised controlled study evaluated the effect of moderate LCD after 18 months of 90 g/day LCD in 85 poorly controlled Type 2 Diabetic patients and compared it with Traditional Diabetic Diet (TDD). Those who followed the LCD diet ate significantly fewer carbohydrates and more protein and fat at the follow up between 18 and 30 months compared to those who followed the TDD group. The LCD group also showed significant improvements in serum HbA1C, two-hour serum glucose, serum alanine aminotransferase and Medication Effect Score in comparison with the TDD group. However, the level of triglycerides increased, and HDL levels decreased significantly in the LCD group from 18 to 30 months. There was however no significant difference between the groups in the improvement of HbA1C, fasting serum glucose, 2 h serum glucose, as well as serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, ALT, creatinine, and urine microalbumin. To confirm the benefits of LCD on glycaemic control, further robust studies are needed. Results of this study can help healthcare professionals gain a better understanding of the prolonged effects of LCD on glycaemic control, liver function, and medication effect scores.
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effect at a one-year follow-up after an 18-month randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 90 gm/day low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eighty-five poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients with an initial HbA1c ≥ 7.5% who have completed an 18-month randomized controlled trial (RCT) on 90 g/day low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) were recruited and followed for one year. A three-day weighted food record, relevant laboratory tests, and medication effect score (MES) were obtained at the end of the previous trial and one year after for a total of 30 months period on specific diet. RESULTS 71 (83.5%) patients completed the study, 35 were in TDD group and 36 were in LCD group. Although the mean of percentage changes in daily carbohydrate intake was significantly lower for those in TDD group than those in LCD group (30.51 ± 11.06% vs. 55.16 ± 21.79%, p = 0.0455) in the period between 18 months and 30 months, patients in LCD group consumed significantly less amount of daily carbohydrate than patients in TDD group (131.8 ± 53.9 g vs. 195.1 ± 50.2 g, p < 0.001). The serum HbA1C, two-hour serum glucose, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and MES were also significantly lower for the LCD group patients than those in the TDD group (p = 0.017, p < 0.001, p = 0.017, and p = 0.008 respectively). The mean of percentage changes of HbA1C, fasting serum glucose, 2 h serum glucose, as well as serum cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, ALT, creatinine, and urine microalbumin, however, were not significantly different between the two groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS The one-year follow-up for patients on 90 g/d LCD showed potential prolonged and better outcome on glycaemic control, liver function and MES than those on TDD for poorly controlled diabetic patients.
Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on insulin-resistant dyslipoproteinemia-a randomized controlled feeding trial.
The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2022;115(1):154-162
Plain language summary
Diets high in carbohydrates and particularly processed carbohydrates can increase the risk for developing a dysfunction in the body’s ability to take up sugar from the blood, known as insulin resistance. However how this relates to insulin resistance can contribute to the development of many diseases such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease and stroke, which highlights the importance in preventing this dysfunction. This randomised control trial of 148 individuals aimed to determine the role of low, medium, and high carbohydrate diets with varying saturated fat content on measures for insulin resistance. The results showed that regardless of the fat content, it was the level of carbohydrate that determined the effect on measures of insulin resistance. High saturated fat and low-carbohydrate diets improved insulin resistance and low saturated fat high carbohydrate diets worsened insulin resistance. Improvements were also observed in blood lipids with a high fat low carbohydrate diet. It was concluded that a diet low in carbohydrates, but high in saturated fat improved insulin resistance and blood lipid levels. This study could be used by healthcare professionals to understand that a diet, which replaces fat with carbohydrates may be worsening insulin resistance and that low carbohydrate diets may be of benefit.
BACKGROUND Carbohydrate restriction shows promise for diabetes, but concerns regarding high saturated fat content of low-carbohydrate diets limit widespread adoption. OBJECTIVES This preplanned ancillary study aimed to determine how diets varying widely in carbohydrate and saturated fat affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors during weight-loss maintenance. METHODS After 10-14% weight loss on a run-in diet, 164 participants (70% female; BMI = 32.4 ± 4.8 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to 3 weight-loss maintenance diets for 20 wk. The prepared diets contained 20% protein and differed 3-fold in carbohydrate (Carb) and saturated fat as a proportion of energy (Low-Carb: 20% carbohydrate, 21% saturated fat; Moderate-Carb: 40%, 14%; High-Carb: 60%, 7%). Fasting plasma samples were collected prerandomization and at 20 wk. Lipoprotein insulin resistance (LPIR) score was calculated from triglyceride-rich, high-density, and low-density lipoprotein particle (TRL-P, HDL-P, LDL-P) sizes and subfraction concentrations (large/very large TRL-P, large HDL-P, small LDL-P). Other outcomes included lipoprotein(a), triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, adiponectin, and inflammatory markers. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for intention-to-treat analysis. RESULTS Retention was 90%. Mean change in LPIR (scale 0-100) differed by diet in a dose-dependent fashion: Low-Carb (-5.3; 95% CI: -9.2, -1.5), Moderate-Carb (-0.02; 95% CI: -4.1, 4.1), High-Carb (3.6; 95% CI: -0.6, 7.7), P = 0.009. Low-Carb also favorably affected lipoprotein(a) [-14.7% (95% CI: -19.5, -9.5), -2.1 (95% CI: -8.2, 4.3), and 0.2 (95% CI: -6.0, 6.8), respectively; P = 0.0005], triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, large/very large TRL-P, large HDL-P, and adiponectin. LDL cholesterol, LDL-P, and inflammatory markers did not differ by diet. CONCLUSIONS A low-carbohydrate diet, high in saturated fat, improved insulin-resistant dyslipoproteinemia and lipoprotein(a), without adverse effect on LDL cholesterol. Carbohydrate restriction might lower CVD risk independently of body weight, a possibility that warrants study in major multicentered trials powered on hard outcomes. The registry is available through ClinicialTrials.gov: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02068885.
Metabolic impact of a nutrition education program for the promotion of fruit and vegetable consumption with people with severe mental disorders (DIETMENT).
BMC research notes. 2022;15(1):122
Plain language summary
In patients with severe mental disorders, motivation to follow a healthy diet and lifestyle might be low. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables may improve metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular health and mental health. This randomised community-based clinical trial included seventy-four patients with severe mental disorders out of which 37.8% of the participants had schizophrenia or related disorders, 29.7% had bipolar disorder, 25.7% had depressive disorder, 4.1% had a personality disorder, and 2.7% had obsessive-compulsive disorder. The intervention group followed a four-week food education programme (DIETMENT) aimed at promoting fruit and vegetable consumption. A five-month post-intervention analysis showed no increase in participants diagnosed with metabolic syndrome in the intervention group, but an increase in participants diagnosed with metabolic syndrome in the control group. There was a significant reduction in the glomerular filtrate rate in the intervention group. In patients with severe mental disorders, more studies should be conducted to examine the health-promoting effects of adding more fruits and vegetables to the diet. Health professionals can use the results of this study to understand how fruits and vegetables contribute to reducing metabolic syndrome and heart disease risk.
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study is to determine the metabolic impact of a nutrition education program on metabolic parameters and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). RESULTS Seventy-four patients were included (mean age, 48.7 years [Standard deviation, SD: 10.8], 55.4% men). The diagnoses of SMD were 37.8% schizophrenia and related disorders; 29.7% bipolar disorder; 25.7% depressive disorder; 4.1% personality disorders; and 2.7% obsessive compulsive disorders. Thirty-seven individuals were distributed in both the intervention group (IG) and the control group (CG). In the IG the presence of MetS was 56.3% and in the CG 46.7%, with no statistically significant difference (p = 0.309). At the end of the study, glomerular filtrate decreased in the IG, body mass index and abdominal perimeter increased in both groups, and there were no changes in metabolic parameters between the groups. Between the baseline and the end of the study, there was no increase in the number of patients diagnosed with MetS (14 at both points); and in the CG the increase was from 8 to 12 (p = 0.005). An intervention based on fruit and vegetable intake could prevent progression to MetS in individuals with SMD, decreasing the likelihood of cardiovascular disease. Trial registration The trial was retrospectively registered on International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) Register on 11 March 2022 (ISRCTN12024347).
Effects of personalized diets by prediction of glycemic responses on glycemic control and metabolic health in newly diagnosed T2DM: a randomized dietary intervention pilot trial.
BMC medicine. 2022;20(1):56
Plain language summary
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects around 10% of the global population. The primary goal in its management is to improve glycemic control. Modifying the diet can help, but many patients fail to achieve improvements with diet alone. The aim of the randomized dietary intervention pilot trial is to evaluate the effects of a personalized postprandial-targeting (PPT) diet on glycemic control and metabolic health in 23 adults with newly diagnosed T2DM, as compared to the commonly recommended Mediterranean-style (MED) diet. The PPT diet led to significant lower levels of continuous-glucose-monitoring (CGM)-based measures as compared to the MED diet. In the additional 6-months intervention, metabolic parameters were further improved and 61% of the participants exhibited diabetes remission. Improvements in clinical outcomes were also accompanied by changes in the gut microbiome. These findings may be useful for the design of larger studies in the future that may have implications for dietary advice in clinical practice.
BACKGROUND Dietary modifications are crucial for managing newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and preventing its health complications, but many patients fail to achieve clinical goals with diet alone. We sought to evaluate the clinical effects of a personalized postprandial-targeting (PPT) diet on glycemic control and metabolic health in individuals with newly diagnosed T2DM as compared to the commonly recommended Mediterranean-style (MED) diet. METHODS We enrolled 23 adults with newly diagnosed T2DM (aged 53.5 ± 8.9 years, 48% males) for a randomized crossover trial of two 2-week-long dietary interventions. Participants were blinded to their assignment to one of the two sequence groups: either PPT-MED or MED-PPT diets. The PPT diet relies on a machine learning algorithm that integrates clinical and microbiome features to predict personal postprandial glucose responses (PPGR). We further evaluated the long-term effects of PPT diet on glycemic control and metabolic health by an additional 6-month PPT intervention (n = 16). Participants were connected to continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) throughout the study and self-recorded dietary intake using a smartphone application. RESULTS In the crossover intervention, the PPT diet lead to significant lower levels of CGM-based measures as compared to the MED diet, including average PPGR (mean difference between diets, - 19.8 ± 16.3 mg/dl × h, p < 0.001), mean glucose (mean difference between diets, - 7.8 ± 5.5 mg/dl, p < 0.001), and daily time of glucose levels > 140 mg/dl (mean difference between diets, - 2.42 ± 1.7 h/day, p < 0.001). Blood fructosamine also decreased significantly more during PPT compared to MED intervention (mean change difference between diets, - 16.4 ± 37 μmol/dl, p < 0.0001). At the end of 6 months, the PPT intervention leads to significant improvements in multiple metabolic health parameters, among them HbA1c (mean ± SD, - 0.39 ± 0.48%, p < 0.001), fasting glucose (- 16.4 ± 24.2 mg/dl, p = 0.02) and triglycerides (- 49 ± 46 mg/dl, p < 0.001). Importantly, 61% of the participants exhibited diabetes remission, as measured by HbA1c < 6.5%. Finally, some clinical improvements were significantly associated with gut microbiome changes per person. CONCLUSION In this crossover trial in subjects with newly diagnosed T2DM, a PPT diet improved CGM-based glycemic measures significantly more than a Mediterranean-style MED diet. Additional 6-month PPT intervention further improved glycemic control and metabolic health parameters, supporting the clinical efficacy of this approach. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01892956.
The effect of periodic ketogenic diet on newly diagnosed overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes.
BMC endocrine disorders. 2022;22(1):34
Plain language summary
Currently, the ketogenic diet is gaining popularity in managing Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Ketogenic diets replace carbohydrates with fat and include limited carbohydrates and adequate protein. This randomised controlled trial evaluated the effects of the 12-week ketogenic diet on sixty overweight or obese T2D patients. Both the ketogenic and control diabetes diet groups achieved significant reductions in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, and HbA1c. However, the ketogenic group showed significantly greater reductions in body mass, blood lipids, and blood glucose than the control group. In the ketogenic diet group, serum uric acid levels were higher than those in the control diet group. It was found that the control diet group adhered to the diet for a longer period than the ketogenic diet group, whose willingness to adhere to the diet long-term was weaker. More robust long-term studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of a ketogenic diet. In this study, more patients who followed the ketogenic diet experienced hypoglycaemic events during the first four weeks. Healthcare providers should exercise caution when recommending a short term therapeutic ketogenic diet.
BACKGROUND The ketogenic diet (KD) is characterized by fat as a substitute of carbohydrates for the primary energy source. There is a large number of overweight or obese people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while this study aims to observe periodic ketogenic diet for effect on overweight or obese patients newly diagnosed as T2DM. METHODS A total of 60 overweight or obese patients newly diagnosed as T2DM were randomized into two groups: KD group, which was given ketogenic diet, and control group, which was given routine diet for diabetes, 30 cases in each group. Both dietary patterns lasted 12 weeks, and during the period, the blood glucose, blood lipid, body weight, insulin, and uric acid before and after intervention, as well as the significance for relevant changes, were observed. RESULTS For both groups, the weight, BMI(body mass index), Waist, TG (triglyceride), TC(cholesterol), LDL (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), HDL (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), FBG (fasting glucose), FINS (fasting insulin), HbA1c (glycosylated hemoglobin) were decreased after intervention (P < 0.05), while the decrease rates in the KD group was more significant than the control group. However, UA(serum uric acid) in the KD group showed an upward trend, while in the control group was not changed significantly (P > 0.05).The willingness to adhere to the ketogenic diet over the long term was weaker than to the routine diet for diabetes. CONCLUSION Among the overweight or obese patients newly diagnosed as type 2 diabetes mellitus, periodic ketogenic diet can not only control the body weight, but also control blood glucose and lipid, but long-term persistence is difficult.
Effects of intermittent very-low calorie diet on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled trial.
Journal of diabetes investigation. 2022;13(1):156-166
Plain language summary
Various studies have shown that intermittent low-calorie diets are effective in reducing weight and improving glycaemic control. In this randomized controlled trial, two intermittent very-low calorie diets (2 days per week and 4 days per week) were evaluated against a control group with respect to achieving diabetes remission, improving glycemic control, metabolic parameters, and quality of life in Type 2 diabetic patients. There was a significant reduction in HbA1c and insulin resistance in the 2 days/week and 4 days/week intermittent very-low calorie groups at week 20. Both the intervention groups achieved diabetes remission with 29% of participants not requiring glucose-lowering medications at week 20. Both intervention groups also showed a significant reduction in serum triglycerides, body weight, body mass index, and fat mass. Aspartate transaminase and alanine aminotransferase levels, as well as blood pressure, decreased significantly with a 4 day/week intermittent low-calorie diet. Both intervention groups experienced improved quality of life at week 10 and the interventions were generally well tolerated. To generalise the results, longer-term, robust studies are required. These results can help healthcare providers understand the clinical relevance of intermittent very-low calorie diets in managing Type 2 diabetes and obesity.
AIMS/INTRODUCTION Very few studies assess the effectiveness of different protocols of intermittent very-low calorie diet (VLCD) in patients with diabetes. This study was designed to compare the effects of 2 days/week and 4 days/week of intermittent VLCD on glycemic control, diabetes remission, metabolic parameters and quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS Participants with obesity and type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly assigned to three groups, consisting of control, 2 days/week and 4 days/week of intermittent VLCD. In the intermittent VLCD groups, participants received a 600-kcal diet per day on restricted days and ad libitum food consumption on non-restricted days. Glycemic control, rate of diabetes remission, metabolic parameters and quality of life were evaluated at baseline, weeks 2, 10 and 20. RESULTS A total of 40 participants were enrolled. The mean body mass index was 30.1 ± 5.9 kg/m2 , and the mean glycated hemoglobin was 7.4 ± 1.2%. At week 20, there was an improvement in glycemic control in both intermittent VLCD groups with significant decreases in glycated hemoglobin levels and insulin resistance index throughout the study periods. Diabetes remission without the need for medications was equally found in 29% of participants in both intermittent VLCD groups. Serum triglyceride, bodyweight, body mass index and fat mass were also significantly decreased in both VLCD groups. No serious adverse events were encountered. CONCLUSION Intermittent VLCD was highly effective in achieving optimal glycemic control. The effects of 2 days/week and 4 days/week of intermittent VLCD on diabetes remission were relatively similar.
Diets for weight management in adults with type 2 diabetes: an umbrella review of published meta-analyses and systematic review of trials of diets for diabetes remission.
Plain language summary
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a global epidemic. Although it is a complex disease, it is mainly driven by weight gain. The benefits of weight loss for T2D are well known, but patients and healthcare practitioners do not have clear guidance as to which dietary strategies may be effective to achieve and to maintain weight loss. The aim of this study is to review a number of studies of weight loss diets in T2D patients to see which ones are the most effective. Also, to see which dietary patterns support type 2 diabetes remission. Greatest weight loss was reported with very low energy diets including formula meal replacements. Low-carbohydrate diets were no better for weight loss than higher-carbohydrate/low-fat diets. High-protein, Mediterranean, high-monounsaturated-fatty-acid, vegetarian and low-glycaemic-index diets all achieved minimal or no difference from control diets. Diets for weight management in people with type 2 diabetes do not support any particular macronutrient profile or style over others. Very low energy diets and formula meal replacements appear to be the most effective. Programmes including a hypocaloric formula ‘total diet replacement’ induction phase were most effective for type 2 diabetes remission. Further research is needed to assess longer-term impacts on weight, glycaemic control, clinical outcomes and diabetes complications.
Conflicts of interest:
A: Meta-analyses, position-stands, randomized-controlled trials (RCTs)
B: Systematic reviews including RCTs of limited number
C: Non-randomized trials, observational studies, narrative reviews
D: Case-reports, evidence-based clinical findings
E: Opinion piece, other
- 19 meta-analyses (MA) on weight-loss diets, involving 23 primary trials were assessed using A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) 2. Findings were synthesised by diet type and study quality (Cochrane Risk of Bias tool 2.0 and Risk Of Bias In Non-randomised Studies – of Interventions [ROBINS-I]) with GRADE applied
- Weight loss diets in the review included: Formula meal replacements (high quality, GRADE moderate) achieved 2.4 kg (95% CI −3.3, −1.4) greater weight loss over 12–52 weeks. Low-carbohydrate diets were no better for weight loss than higher-carbohydrate/low-fat diets (high quality, GRADE high). High-protein, Mediterranean, high-monounsaturated-fatty-acid, vegetarian and low-glycaemic-index diets all achieved minimal (0.3– 2 kg) or no difference from control diets (low to critically low quality, GRADE very low/moderate)
- Greatest weight loss was reported with very low energy diets (VLED), (400–500 kcal). However, this study found that low-carbohydrate diets (LCD) (21–70g of carbohydrate daily from1000–1500 kcal) were no better for weight loss than higher-carbohydrate/low-fat diets
- Time period of diets / length of observation / intervention: (1) Formula meal replacements (>12–52 wk), (2) LCDs ranged between (>8 wk to 4 years), (3) Very low energy diets (>8–12 wk), (4) High- protein (>4->8 wks), Mediterranean (>4->8 wk), high-monounsaturated-fatty-acid (>2wk), vegetarian (≥3wk) and low-glycaemic-index diets (≥6mo)
- Authors highlight weight reduction is fundamental for T2D management and remission
- This MA found that VLED and formula meal replacement appear the most effective approaches for weight management with T2D by providing less energy than self-administered food-based diets
- Potential pathophysiological mechanisms highlighted by authors are HbA1c reduction and remission which appear to be from weight loss, with only small differences between diet types assessed over 3–12 months, irrespective of diet type
- Study limitations: Many meta-analyses were of ‘low’ and ‘critically low’ AMSTAR 2 quality, predominantly through ‘no protocol reported’ (despite clear and sound methods) and no assessment of publication bias
- Most studies included European participants, such that findings may not be equally applicable to other ethnic and/or deprived communities. Durations of interventions varied, where weight regain is frequent over a longer period. Authors highlight evidence from clinical practice is needed to identify safe and effective approaches to achieve and maintain weight loss
- Authors highlight primary studies should use an RCT design, with data analyses conducted ‘blind’. They should define the intervention clearly (e.g., diets, physical activity, and behavioural and psychological support), and address separately the induction (usually 3–6 months) and maintenance (≥12 months)
- This research received no funding
- The authors declared no conflicts of interest.
Clinical practice applications:
- While this study found a variety of dietary compositions can be used effectively for weight management with T2D, VLED was successfully used to achieve remission for T2D
- Programmes with a ’total diet replacement’ induction phase were the most effective dietary approach for T2D remission (up to 61% of participants at 1 year).
Considerations for future research:
- Authors state future research should provide implementation with optimal support in real-life settings for weight loss, prevention of weight regain and remissions, rather than seek subtle differences from macronutrient compositions
- Future studies should report sufficient detail about macronutrient or micronutrient contents, or prescribed and reported energy intakes, including energy intake of nutrient-restricted diets.
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Weight reduction is fundamental for type 2 diabetes management and remission, but uncertainty exists over which diet type is best to achieve and maintain weight loss. We evaluated dietary approaches for weight loss, and remission, in people with type 2 diabetes to inform practice and clinical guidelines. METHODS First, we conducted a systematic review of published meta-analyses of RCTs of weight-loss diets. We searched MEDLINE (Ovid), PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, up to 7 May 2021. We synthesised weight loss findings stratified by diet types and assessed meta-analyses quality with A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) 2. We assessed certainty of pooled results of each meta-analysis using Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) (PROSPERO CRD42020169258). Second, we conducted a systematic review of any intervention studies reporting type 2 diabetes remission with weight-loss diets, in MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, up to 10 May 2021. Findings were synthesised by diet type and study quality (Cochrane Risk of Bias tool 2.0 and Risk Of Bias In Non-randomised Studies - of Interventions [ROBINS-I]), with GRADE applied (PROSPERO CRD42020208878). RESULTS We identified 19 meta-analyses of weight-loss diets, involving 2-23 primary trials (n = 100-1587), published 2013-2021. Twelve were 'critically low' or 'low' AMSTAR 2 quality, with seven 'high' quality. Greatest weight loss was reported with very low energy diets, 1.7-2.1 MJ/day (400-500 kcal) for 8-12 weeks (high-quality meta-analysis, GRADE low), achieving 6.6 kg (95% CI -9.5, -3.7) greater weight loss than low-energy diets (4.2-6.3 MJ/day [1000-1500 kcal]). Formula meal replacements (high quality, GRADE moderate) achieved 2.4 kg (95% CI -3.3, -1.4) greater weight loss over 12-52 weeks. Low-carbohydrate diets were no better for weight loss than higher-carbohydrate/low-fat diets (high quality, GRADE high). High-protein, Mediterranean, high-monounsaturated-fatty-acid, vegetarian and low-glycaemic-index diets all achieved minimal (0.3-2 kg) or no difference from control diets (low to critically low quality, GRADE very low/moderate). For type 2 diabetes remission, of 373 records, 16 met inclusion criteria. Remissions at 1 year were reported for a median 54% of participants in RCTs including initial low-energy total diet replacement (low-risk-of-bias study, GRADE high), and 11% and 15% for meal replacements and Mediterranean diets, respectively (some concerns for risk of bias in studies, GRADE moderate/low). For ketogenic/very low-carbohydrate and very low-energy food-based diets, the evidence for remission (20% and 22%, respectively) has serious and critical risk of bias, and GRADE certainty is very low. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION Published meta-analyses of hypocaloric diets for weight management in people with type 2 diabetes do not support any particular macronutrient profile or style over others. Very low energy diets and formula meal replacement appear the most effective approaches, generally providing less energy than self-administered food-based diets. Programmes including a hypocaloric formula 'total diet replacement' induction phase were most effective for type 2 diabetes remission. Most of the evidence is restricted to 1 year or less. Well-conducted research is needed to assess longer-term impacts on weight, glycaemic control, clinical outcomes and diabetes complications.