The effect of periodic ketogenic diet on newly diagnosed overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes.
BMC endocrine disorders. 2022;22(1):34
Plain language summary
Currently, the ketogenic diet is gaining popularity in managing Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Ketogenic diets replace carbohydrates with fat and include limited carbohydrates and adequate protein. This randomised controlled trial evaluated the effects of the 12-week ketogenic diet on sixty overweight or obese T2D patients. Both the ketogenic and control diabetes diet groups achieved significant reductions in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, and HbA1c. However, the ketogenic group showed significantly greater reductions in body mass, blood lipids, and blood glucose than the control group. In the ketogenic diet group, serum uric acid levels were higher than those in the control diet group. It was found that the control diet group adhered to the diet for a longer period than the ketogenic diet group, whose willingness to adhere to the diet long-term was weaker. More robust long-term studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of a ketogenic diet. In this study, more patients who followed the ketogenic diet experienced hypoglycaemic events during the first four weeks. Healthcare providers should exercise caution when recommending a short term therapeutic ketogenic diet.
BACKGROUND The ketogenic diet (KD) is characterized by fat as a substitute of carbohydrates for the primary energy source. There is a large number of overweight or obese people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while this study aims to observe periodic ketogenic diet for effect on overweight or obese patients newly diagnosed as T2DM. METHODS A total of 60 overweight or obese patients newly diagnosed as T2DM were randomized into two groups: KD group, which was given ketogenic diet, and control group, which was given routine diet for diabetes, 30 cases in each group. Both dietary patterns lasted 12 weeks, and during the period, the blood glucose, blood lipid, body weight, insulin, and uric acid before and after intervention, as well as the significance for relevant changes, were observed. RESULTS For both groups, the weight, BMI(body mass index), Waist, TG (triglyceride), TC(cholesterol), LDL (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), HDL (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), FBG (fasting glucose), FINS (fasting insulin), HbA1c (glycosylated hemoglobin) were decreased after intervention (P < 0.05), while the decrease rates in the KD group was more significant than the control group. However, UA(serum uric acid) in the KD group showed an upward trend, while in the control group was not changed significantly (P > 0.05).The willingness to adhere to the ketogenic diet over the long term was weaker than to the routine diet for diabetes. CONCLUSION Among the overweight or obese patients newly diagnosed as type 2 diabetes mellitus, periodic ketogenic diet can not only control the body weight, but also control blood glucose and lipid, but long-term persistence is difficult.
Effectiveness of a Multicomponent Intervention in Primary Care That Addresses Patients with Diabetes Mellitus with Two or More Unhealthy Habits, Such as Diet, Physical Activity or Smoking: Multicenter Randomized Cluster Trial (EIRA Study).
International journal of environmental research and public health. 2021;18(11)
Plain language summary
Life habits such as smoking, physical activity, and diet affect glycaemic control. The objective of this multicentre randomised cluster trial (EIRA study) was to evaluate the effectiveness of multicomponent educational interventions on glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetic patients. Interventions in multicomponent individual, group and community settings included smoking cessation, the Mediterranean diet and physical activity, as well as an assessment of the quality of life. Participants had unhealthy lifestyles prior to the intervention. The study was conducted in 26 primary healthcare centres in seven health departments in Spain over a period of 12 months. A brief intervention aimed to change the habits of the participants, including increasing physical activity, quitting smoking and adhering to the Mediterranean diet. After 12 months of intervention, there were no statistically significant improvements in glycaemic control, physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, or quality of life. However, adherence to the Mediterranean diet was statistically significant. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of multicomponent interventions in improving glycaemic control. The clinical applicability of multicomponent interventions to tackle type 2 diabetes, obesity, and unhealthy lifestyles should be considered by healthcare providers.
Introduction: We evaluated the effectiveness of an individual, group and community intervention to improve the glycemic control of patients with diabetes mellitus aged 45-75 years with two or three unhealthy life habits. As secondary endpoints, we evaluated the inverventions' effectiveness on adhering to Mediterranean diet, physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, smoking and quality of life. Method: A randomized clinical cluster (health centers) trial with two parallel groups in Spain from January 2016 to December 2019 was used. Patients with diabetes mellitus aged 45-75 years with two unhealthy life habits or more (smoking, not adhering to Mediterranean diet or little physical activity) participated. Centers were randomly assigned. The sample size was estimated to be 420 people for the main outcome variable. Educational intervention was done to improve adherence to Mediterranean diet, physical activity and smoking cessation by individual, group and community interventions for 12 months. Controls received the usual health care. The outcome variables were: HbA1c (main), the Mediterranean diet adherence score (MEDAS), the international diet quality index (DQI-I), the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ), sedentary lifestyle, smoking ≥1 cigarette/day and the EuroQuol questionnaire (EVA-EuroQol5D5L). Results: In total, 13 control centers (n = 356) and 12 intervention centers (n = 338) were included with similar baseline conditions. An analysis for intention-to-treat was done by applying multilevel mixed models fitted by basal values and the health center: the HbA1c adjusted mean difference = -0.09 (95% CI: -0.29-0.10), the DQI-I adjusted mean difference = 0.25 (95% CI: -0.32-0.82), the MEDAS adjusted mean difference = 0.45 (95% CI: 0.01-0.89), moderate/high physical activity OR = 1.09 (95% CI: 0.64-1.86), not living a sedentary lifestyle OR = 0.97 (95% CI: 0.55-1.73), no smoking OR = 0.61 (95% CI: 0.54-1.06), EVA adjusted mean difference = -1.26 (95% CI: -4.98-2.45). Conclusions: No statistically significant changes were found for either glycemic control or physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, smoking and quality of life. The multicomponent individual, group and community interventions only showed a statistically significant improvement in adhering to Mediterranean diet. Such innovative interventions need further research to demonstrate their effectiveness in patients with poor glycemic control.
Acceptability of a very-low-energy diet in Type 2 diabetes: patient experiences and behaviour regulation.
Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association. 2017;34(11):1554-1567
Plain language summary
Patients with type 2 diabetes can return to normal blood glucose levels through substantial weight loss. While many studies have addressed this, very few have assessed the effects of adherence to a very-low-energy diet (VLED) on patients’ quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the experiences of adhering to VLED for patients in remission for type 2 diabetes. Fifteen participants were interviewed before and after the 8-week VLED intervention and narratives were analysed. This study identified common barriers, facilitators and strategies used by the participants. Overall, participants found adherence easier than anticipated, and found barriers to be offset by suggested behaviour-regulation strategies. Based on this study, the authors conclude dietary treatment for reversal of type 2 diabetes is acceptable and feasible in motivated patients, and suggest further controlled research be done to confirm the validity and applicability of these findings.
AIMS: To evaluate the acceptability of an 8-week very-low-energy diet for remission of Type 2 diabetes, and to identify barriers and facilitators of adherence and behaviour-regulation strategies used by participants in the Counterbalance study. METHODS Eighteen of 30 participants in the Counterbalance study (ISRCTN88634530) took part in semi-structured interviews. Of these, 15 participants were interviewed before and after the 8-week very-low-energy diet intervention. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the narratives. RESULTS The prospect of diabetes remission, considerable weight loss, and long-term health improvement provided participants with substantial initial motivation. This motivation was sustained through the experience of rapid weight loss, improvements in blood glucose levels, social support and increased physical and psychological well-being. Overall, adherence to the very-low-energy diet for 8 weeks was perceived as much easier than anticipated, but required personal effort. Participants addressed challenges by removing food from the environment, planning, avoidance of tempting situations or places, and self-distraction. Weight loss and improvements in blood glucose levels lead to a sense of achievement and improvements in physical and psychological wellbeing. CONCLUSIONS Dietary treatment for reversal of Type 2 diabetes is acceptable and feasible in motivated participants, and the process is perceived as highly gratifying. Research outside of controlled trial settings is needed to gauge the generalisability of these findings.