Association of Major Dietary Protein Sources With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: Prospective Cohort Study.
Journal of the American Heart Association. 2021;10(5):e015553
Plain language summary
Dietary recommendations for human health focusing on total protein intake without considering specific protein sources may be simplistic and insufficient. The aim of this study was to investigate whether different dietary protein sources would be differentially associated with mortality risk. The study is based on data from a large prospective cohort study with up to 18-years of follow-up to investigate the risks of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in relation to animal and plant protein intake, and major sources of dietary protein. Results indicate that intake of plant protein and substitution of animal protein with plant protein, were associated with lower risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and dementia mortality. Furthermore, substitution of red meat, eggs, dairy products, or legumes with nuts was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality. Authors conclude that their findings support the need for consideration of protein sources, in addition to the amount of protein intake, in future dietary guidelines.
Background Dietary recommendations regarding protein intake have been focused on the amount of protein. However, such recommendations without considering specific protein sources may be simplistic and insufficient. Methods and Results We included 102 521 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative between 1993 and 1998, and followed them through February 2017. During 1 876 205 person-years of follow-up, 25 976 deaths occurred. Comparing the highest with the lowest quintile, plant protein intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.91 [0.86, 0.96]), cardiovascular disease mortality (HR, 0.88 [0.79, 0.97]), and dementia mortality (HR, 0.79 [0.67, 0.94]). Among major protein sources, comparing the highest with the lowest quintile of consumption, processed red meat (HR, 1.06 [1.01, 1.10]) or eggs (HR, 1.14 [1.10, 1.19]) was associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality. Unprocessed red meat (HR, 1.12 [1.02, 1.23]), eggs (HR, 1.24 [1.14, 1.34]), or dairy products (HR, 1.11 [1.02, 1.22]) was associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease mortality. Egg consumption was associated with higher risk of cancer mortality (HR, 1.10 [1.02, 1.19]). Processed red meat consumption was associated with higher risk of dementia mortality (HR, 1.20 [1.05, 1.32]), while consumption of poultry (HR, 0.85 [0.75, 0.97]) or eggs (HR, 0.86 [0.75, 0.98]) was associated with lower risk of dementia mortality. In substitution analysis, substituting of animal protein with plant protein was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, and dementia mortality, and substitution of total red meat, eggs, or dairy products with nuts was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality. Conclusions Different dietary protein sources have varying associations with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, and dementia mortality. Our findings support the need for consideration of protein sources in future dietary guidelines.
Health-Promoting Components in Fermented Foods: An Up-to-Date Systematic Review.
Plain language summary
While fermented foods have long been produced, a renewed interest has been observed in Western countries. Several reviews have investigated the health benefits of fermented foods, however none of them have discussed the components that form upon fermentation and their possible effect on health. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive review of the health-promoting components of fermentation in order to better understand their role in healthy diets. This systematic review found fermentation increased antioxidant activity of milks, cereals, fruit, vegetables, meat and fish based on 125 analysed articles. Fermentation of different food categories led to varying health benefits including vitamin content, probiotic activity and anti-hypertensive properties. Based on the existing literature, the authors conclude fermented foods should be consumed regularly and recommend they be included in worldwide dietary guidelines.
Fermented foods have long been produced according to knowledge passed down from generation to generation and with no understanding of the potential role of the microorganism(s) involved in the process. However, the scientific and technological revolution in Western countries made fermentation turn from a household to a controlled process suitable for industrial scale production systems intended for the mass marketplace. The aim of this paper is to provide an up-to-date review of the latest studies which investigated the health-promoting components forming upon fermentation of the main food matrices, in order to contribute to understanding their important role in healthy diets and relevance in national dietary recommendations worldwide. Formation of antioxidant, bioactive, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, and FODMAP-reducing components in fermented foods are mainly presented and discussed. Fermentation was found to increase antioxidant activity of milks, cereals, fruit and vegetables, meat and fish. Anti-hypertensive peptides are detected in fermented milk and cereals. Changes in vitamin content are mainly observed in fermented milk and fruits. Fermented milk and fruit juice were found to have probiotic activity. Other effects such as anti-diabetic properties, FODMAP reduction, and changes in fatty acid profile are peculiar of specific food categories.
Food sources of fructose-containing sugars and glycaemic control: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled intervention studies.
BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2018;363:k4644
Plain language summary
With increasing evidence linking fructose to metabolic disease, current dietary guidelines recommend a reduction of added free sugars, especially fructose-containing sugars from sugars-sweetened beverages (SSBs). However, it is currently unclear whether the negative impact of fructose on metabolic health is as implicative in the context of an overall dietary consumption pattern. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different sources of fructose-containing sugars on glycaemic control in people with and without diabetes. This review analysed 155 controlled intervention studies and found that fructose-containing sugars in the form of fruit do not have a harmful effect on glycaemic control when compared to energy-matched macronutrient substitutions. Further, harmful effects on glycaemic control were found when excess energy in the form of fructose-containing sugars from SSBs were added to the diet. The authors conclude the food source of fructose-containing sugars on glycemic control is important in the conversation of metabolic health and glycaemic control. While further research is needed to assess a wider variety of food sources, public health professionals should consider the influence of food sources when developing dietary recommendations for the prevention and management of diabetes and other metabolic conditions.
OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of different food sources of fructose-containing sugars on glycaemic control at different levels of energy control. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled intervention studies. DATA SOURCES Medine, Embase, and the Cochrane Library up to 25 April 2018. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES Controlled intervention studies of at least seven days' duration and assessing the effect of different food sources of fructose-containing sugars on glycaemic control in people with and without diabetes were included. Four study designs were prespecified on the basis of energy control: substitution studies (sugars in energy matched comparisons with other macronutrients), addition studies (excess energy from sugars added to diets), subtraction studies (energy from sugars subtracted from diets), and ad libitum studies (sugars freely replaced by other macronutrients without control for energy). Outcomes were glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose, and fasting blood glucose insulin. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Four independent reviewers extracted relevant data and assessed risk of bias. Data were pooled by random effects models and overall certainty of the evidence assessed by the GRADE approach (grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation). RESULTS 155 study comparisons (n=5086) were included. Total fructose-containing sugars had no harmful effect on any outcome in substitution or subtraction studies, with a decrease seen in HbA1c in substitution studies (mean difference -0.22% (95% confidence interval to -0.35% to -0.08%), -25.9 mmol/mol (-27.3 to -24.4)), but a harmful effect was seen on fasting insulin in addition studies (4.68 pmol/L (1.40 to 7.96)) and ad libitum studies (7.24 pmol/L (0.47 to 14.00)). There was interaction by food source, with specific food sources showing beneficial effects (fruit and fruit juice) or harmful effects (sweetened milk and mixed sources) in substitution studies and harmful effects (sugars-sweetened beverages and fruit juice) in addition studies on at least one outcome. Most of the evidence was low quality. CONCLUSIONS Energy control and food source appear to mediate the effect of fructose-containing sugars on glycaemic control. Although most food sources of these sugars (especially fruit) do not have a harmful effect in energy matched substitutions with other macronutrients, several food sources of fructose-containing sugars (especially sugars-sweetened beverages) adding excess energy to diets have harmful effects. However, certainty in these estimates is low, and more high quality randomised controlled trials are needed. STUDY REGISTRATION Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02716870).