Impact of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation on Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome-A Systematic Review.
Plain language summary
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a relatively new field of scientific exploration where patients receive faeces from a healthy donor to help repopulate their intestinal tract with healthful bacteria. The gut microbiome is an ecosystem of an estimated 10~100 trillion microorganisms and there is increasing research on the important role these bacteria play in supporting our health and weight. This study reviews all trials involving faecal transports in patients with either clinical obesity or Metabolic syndrome to see if it helped improve weight, bmi or other metabolic parameters. Three studies with 76 male patients were included in this review and the results showed that FMT recipients had improved insulin sensitivity and reduced HbA1c glucose levels after 6 weeks, but these improvements were short-term only. There were no differences in bmi, cholesterol, markers and fasting glucose levels. The conclusion is that whilst FMT may confer benefits there is still much to understand about the fecal microbial preparation, dosing, and method of delivery, as well as the host patient’s response.
undefined: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a gut microbial-modulation strategy that has been investigated for the treatment of a variety of human diseases, including obesity-associated metabolic disorders. This study appraises current literature and provides an overview of the effectiveness and limitations of FMT as a potential therapeutic strategy for obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS). Five electronic databases and two gray literature sources were searched up to 10 December 2018. All interventional and observational studies that contained information on the relevant population (adult patients with obesity and MS), intervention (receiving allogeneic FMT) and outcomes (metabolic parameters) were eligible. From 1096 unique citations, three randomized placebo-controlled studies (76 patients with obesity and MS, body mass index = 34.8 ± 4.1 kg/m , fasting plasma glucose = 5.8 ± 0.7 mmol/L) were included for review. Studies reported mixed results with regards to improvement in metabolic parameters. Two studies reported improved peripheral insulin sensitivity (rate of glucose disappearance, RD) at 6 weeks in patients receiving donor FMT versus patients receiving the placebo control. In addition, one study observed lower HbA1c levels in FMT patients at 6 weeks. No differences in fasting plasma glucose, hepatic insulin sensitivity, body mass index (BMI), or cholesterol markers were observed between two groups across all included studies. While promising, the influence of FMT on long-term clinical endpoints needs to be further explored. Future studies are also required to better understand the mechanisms through which changes in gut microbial ecology and engraftment of microbiota affect metabolic outcomes for patients with obesity and MS. In addition, further research is needed to better define the optimal fecal microbial preparation, dosing, and method of delivery.
Recognizing Depression from the Microbiota⁻Gut⁻Brain Axis.
International journal of molecular sciences. 2018;19(6)
Plain language summary
Emerging research indicates that major depression is not just a mental disorder but also a systemic disease. In depression, the brain-gut axis, the bidirectional pathway that connects the brain and gut, is thought to be disturbed. This disruption is hypothesised to be a major pathological basis of depression. The aim of this paper is to explore this hypothesis by reviewing the current literature. According to the current literature, the authors found research stating the gut microbiota of depressed patients is significantly different from that of healthy controls. Additionally, disturbances or abnormalities in the gut can influence the susceptibility of onset of depression, while restoration of the gut will alleviate depression. Based on these findings, the authors conclude depression is closely related with the condition of the brain-gut axis, and that restoring the normal condition of gut microbiota may aid in the therapy of depression. The authors expect therapies that target gut microbiota will play an important role in the treatment and prevention of depression in the future.
Major depression is one of the leading causes of disability, morbidity, and mortality worldwide. The brain⁻gut axis functions are disturbed, revealed by a dysfunction of the brain, immune system, endocrine system, and gut. Traditional depression treatments all target the brain, with different drugs and/or psychotherapy. Unfortunately, most of the patients have never received any treatment. Studies indicate that gut microbiota could be a direct cause for the disorder. Abnormal microbiota and the microbiota⁻gut⁻brain dysfunction may cause mental disorders, while correcting these disturbance could alleviate depression. Nowadays, the gut microbiota modulation has become a hot topic in treatment research of mental disorders. Depression is closely related with the health condition of the brain⁻gut axis, and maintaining/restoring the normal condition of gut microbiota helps in the prevention/therapy of mental disorders.