Avocado Intake, and Longitudinal Weight and Body Mass Index Changes in an Adult Cohort.
Plain language summary
There is increasing research aimed at reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity worldwide. Evidence suggests nutrient-dense, whole food choices may help reduce weight gain by increased fibre intake, reduced fat absorption and improved satiety levels, and avocados have recently been suggested to help reduce excess adiposity. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of habitual avocado intake on adult weight gain and changes in body mass index (BMI). This longitudinal study analysed data from the Adventist Health Study-2, which is comprised of approximately 96,000 members. Subjects were mailed a comprehensive lifestyle questionnaire that included self-reported weight, height and avocado consumption. Two follow-up questionnaires were sent out to collect self-reported weight, with follow-up time varying between 4-11 years. This study found avocado intake to be associated with a lower prevalence of overweight and attenuated weight gain in normal weight individuals over time. While avocado intake reduced the odds of becoming overweight or obese, when adjusted for BMI it was found baseline BMI had more of an impact on the odds of becoming overweight or obese than avocado intake. Based on these results, the authors suggest avocado consumption, as part of a healthy diet, may impact long-term changes in weight at the population level.
Avocados contain nutrients and bioactive compounds that may help reduce the risk of becoming overweight/obese. We prospectively examined the effect of habitual avocado intake on changes in weight and body mass index (BMI). In the Adventist Health Study (AHS-2), a longitudinal cohort (~55,407; mean age ~56 years; U.S. and Canada), avocado intake (standard serving size 32 g/day) was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Self-reported height and weight were collected at baseline. Self-reported follow-up weight was collected with follow-up questionnaires between four and 11 years after baseline. Using the generalized least squares (GLS) approach, we analyzed repeated measures of weight in relation to avocado intake. Marginal logistic regression analyses were used to calculate the odds of becoming overweight/obese, comparing low (>0 to <32 g/day) and high (≥32 g/day) avocado intake to non-consumers (reference). Avocado consumers who were normal weight at baseline, gained significantly less weight than non-consumers. The odds (OR (95% CI)) of becoming overweight/obese between baseline and follow-up was 0.93 (0.85, 1.01), and 0.85 (0.60, 1.19) for low and high avocado consumers, respectively. Habitual consumption of avocados may reduce adult weight gain, but odds of overweight/obesity are attenuated by differences in initial BMI values.
Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity But Not Sedentary Time Is Associated With Musculoskeletal Health Outcomes in a Cohort of Australian Middle-Aged Women.
Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. 2017;32(4):708-715
Plain language summary
Bone mineral density (BMD), muscle strength, and balance are all important aspects of musculoskeletal health. The aim of the study was to describe associations between objectively‐measured physical activity and sedentary time and musculoskeletal health outcomes in middle‐aged women. The study is a cross-sectional analysis of data from a population-based sample of 309 women with an age range between 36 and 57 years. Results indicate that in middle‐aged women, greater total physical activity was associated with better musculoskeletal health. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity appears more important than light physical activity or sedentary time for many musculoskeletal outcomes in middle‐aged women. Authors conclude that their findings are important for developing interventions to improve habitual physical activity that are targeted at improving musculoskeletal health amongst women in midlife when an accelerated process of decline in BMD, muscle strength, and balance begins.
undefined: Associations between physical activity and time spent sedentary and musculoskeletal outcomes remain unclear in middle-aged adults. This study aimed to describe associations between objectively-measured physical activity and sedentary time and musculoskeletal health outcomes in middle-aged women. This cross-sectional study from a population-based sample of 309 women (age 36 to 57 years) examined associations of total physical activity (accelerometer counts/min of wear time), and time spent sedentary, in light physical activities and moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (MVPA) (by Actigraph GT1M accelerometer) with lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) bone mineral density (BMD) (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), lower limb muscle strength (LMS), and functional mobility and balance tests (timed up and go test [TUG], functional reach test [FRT], lateral reach test [LRT], and step test [ST]) using linear regression. Total physical activity was beneficially associated with FN BMD (values are β; 95% CI) (0.011 g/cm ; 95% CI, 0.003 to 0.019 g/cm ), LMS (2.13 kg; 95% CI, 0.21 to 4.06 kg), and TUG (-0.080 s; 95% CI, -0.129 to -0.030 s), after adjustment for confounders. MVPA was also beneficially associated with FN BMD (0.0050 g/cm ; 95% CI, 0.0007 to 0.0094 g/cm ), LMS (1.48 kg; 95% CI, 0.45 to 2.52 kg), ST (0.12 steps; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.23 steps), and TUG (-0.043 s; 95% CI, -0.070 to -0.016 s). Associations between MVPA and LMS, TUG and ST persisted after further adjustment for sedentary time. Only TUG was associated with sedentary time, with a detrimental effect (0.075 s; 95% CI, 0.013 to 0.137 s) and this did not persist after further adjustment for MVPA. Light physical activity was not associated with any outcome. MVPA appears more important than light physical activity or sedentary time for many musculoskeletal outcomes in middle-aged women. This needs to be considered when developing interventions to improve habitual physical activity that aim to improve musculoskeletal health. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.