Fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.
BMJ nutrition, prevention & health. 2021;4(2):519-531
Plain language summary
Type 2 diabetes is a growing health concern worldwide, with projections estimating it will affect over 700 million people by 2045. Studies have indicated a link between increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and decreased risk of Type 2 diabetes. This systematic review and meta-analysis of twenty-three prospective cohort studies explored this link further, examining the effects of different types of fruits and vegetables on the risk of Type 2 diabetes. The results suggest that a high intake of combined fruits and vegetables and specific varieties, such as apples, pears, blueberries, grapes, and raisins, may slightly reduce the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. However, consuming cantaloupe, fruit drinks, fruit juice, potatoes, Brussels sprouts, and cabbage may increase the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. The protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on the reduction of type 2 diabetes could be attributed to the dietary fibre, antioxidants, vitamins and minerals and phytochemicals present in fruits and vegetables. While further studies are necessary to confirm these results and explore the impact of specific types of fruits and vegetables on Type 2 diabetes risk, healthcare professionals can use this information to promote the protective benefits of including specific subtypes of fruits and vegetables in the diet to reduce the risk of Type 2 diabetes.
BACKGROUND The association between intake of fruit and vegetables and their subtypes, and the risk of type 2 diabetes has been investigated in several studies, but the results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE We conducted an updated systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies on intakes of fruit and vegetables and fruit and vegetable subtypes and the risk of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to 20 October 2020. Prospective cohort studies of fruit and vegetable consumption and type 2 diabetes mellitus were included. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using a random effects model. RESULTS We included 23 cohort studies. The summary RR for high versus low intake and per 200 g/day were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.89 to 0.98, I2=0%, n=10 studies) and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.95 to 1.01, I2=37.8%, n=7) for fruit and vegetables combined, 0.93 (95% CI: 0.90 to 0.97, I2=9.3%, n=20) and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.92 to 1.00, I2=68.4%, n=19) for fruits and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.88 to 1.02, I2=60.4%, n=17) and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94 to 1.01, I2=39.2%, n=16) for vegetables, respectively. Inverse associations were observed for apples, apples and pears, blueberries, grapefruit and grapes and raisins, while positive associations were observed for intakes of cantaloupe, fruit drinks, fruit juice, brussels sprouts, cauliflower and potatoes, however, most of these associations were based on few studies and need further investigation in additional studies. CONCLUSIONS This meta-analysis found a weak inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and type 2 diabetes risk. There is indication of both inverse and positive associations between intake of several fruit and vegetables subtypes and type 2 diabetes risk, however, further studies are needed before firm conclusions can be made.
Association of Major Food Sources of Fructose-Containing Sugars With Incident Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
JAMA network open. 2020;3(7):e209993
Plain language summary
Fructose is a type of sugar that has been implicated as a contributor to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is a condition where large waist circumference, high blood pressure and elevated blood lipid levels may all coexist. However, it remains unclear as to the role of fructose containing foods in the development of MetS. This systematic review and meta-analysis of 13 prospective cohort studies aimed to determine the association of several fructose containing foods and drinks with MetS. The results showed that sugary drinks containing fructose increased the risk of MetS, whereas no associations were found with mixed fruit juice, 100% fruit juice, honey, ice cream or confectionary. Interestingly fruit and yoghurt containing fructose decreased the risk of developing MetS. It was concluded that fructose containing food and drinks are not all equal in their biological effects. Sugary drinks increased the risk of developing MetS but yoghurt and fruit had a protective effect against development. Reasons for this could be due to a generally unhealthier lifestyle in those who consume sugary drinks or may be due to the increased protective effects associated with the vitamins and minerals in fruit and yoghurt. This study could be used by healthcare professionals to recommend a diet eliminating sugary drinks and containing regular fruit and yoghurt intake.
Importance: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the role of other important food sources of fructose-containing sugars in the development of MetS remains unclear. Objective: To examine the association of major food sources of fructose-containing sugars with incident MetS. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched from database inception to March 24, 2020, in addition to manual searches of reference lists from included studies using the following search terms: sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit drink, yogurt, metabolic syndrome, and prospective study. Study Selection: Inclusion criteria included prospective cohort studies of 1 year or longer that investigated the association of important food sources of fructose-containing sugars with incident MetS in participants free of MetS at the start of the study. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Extreme quantile risk estimates for each food source with MetS incidence were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Interstudy heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q statistic) and quantified (I2 statistic). Dose-response analyses were performed using a 1-stage linear mixed-effects model. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation). Results were reported according to the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guidelines. Main Outcomes and Measures: Pooled risk ratio (RR) of incident MetS (pairwise and dose response). Results: Thirteen prospective cohort studies (49 591 participants [median age, 51 years; range, 6-90 years]; 14 205 with MetS) that assessed 8 fructose-containing foods and MetS were included. An adverse linear dose-response association for SSBs (RR for 355 mL/d, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05-1.23) and an L-shaped protective dose-response association for yogurt (RR for 85 g/d, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.58-0.76) and fruit (RR for 80 g/d, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.78-0.86) was found. Fruit juices (mixed and 100%) had a U-shaped dose-response association with protection at moderate doses (mixed fruit juice: RR for 125 mL/d, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.42-0.79; 100% fruit juice: RR for 125 mL/d, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.61-0.97). Honey, ice cream, and confectionary had no association with MetS incidence. The certainty of the evidence was moderate for SSBs, yogurt, fruit, mixed fruit juice, and 100% fruit juice and very low for all other food sources. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that the adverse association of SSBs with MetS does not extend to other food sources of fructose-containing sugars, with a protective association for yogurt and fruit throughout the dose range and for 100% fruit juice and mixed fruit juices at moderate doses. Therefore, current policies and guidelines on the need to limit sources of free sugars may need to be reexamined.
Beverage consumption patterns among 4-19 y old children in 2009-14 NHANES show that the milk and 100% juice pattern is associated with better diets.
Nutrition journal. 2018;17(1):54
Plain language summary
Recommendations for milk and/or fruit juice consumption in children’s diets has remained inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess whether patterns in beverage consumption among children and adolescents can influence food choices and overall diet quality. Beverage consumption patterns of 8119 children and adolescents were analysed based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Beverage patterns were defined as milk pattern, juice pattern, milk and juice or other caloric beverages. This analysis found that while children rarely limit their drinking choices to a single beverage, those who primarily consumed milk, juice or a combination of the two were associated with better dietary choices. Based on this study, the authors conclude that promotion of milk and juice consumption, compared to other caloric beverages, may be an effective way to improve overall diet quality in children and adolescents.
BACKGROUND Patterns of beverage consumption among children and adolescents can be indicative of food choices and total diet quality. METHODS Analyses of beverage consumption patterns among 8119 children aged 4-19 y were based on the first 24-h recall of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009-14 NHANES). Four pre-defined beverage patterns were: 1) milk pattern; 2) 100% juice pattern; 3) milk and 100% juice pattern; and 4) other caloric beverages. Food- and nutrient-based diet quality measures included the Healthy Eating Index 2010. RESULTS Most children drank other caloric beverages, as opposed to milk (17.8%), 100% juice (5.6%), or milk and 100% juice (13.5%). Drinkers of milk and 100% juice had diets that did not differ from each other in total calories, total and added sugars, fiber, or vitamin E. Milk drinkers consumed more dairy and had higher intakes of calcium, potassium, vitamin A and vitamin D as compared to all other patterns. Juice drinkers consumed more total fruit, same amounts of whole fruit, and had higher intakes of vitamin C as compared to the other consumption patterns. Drinkers of both milk and 100% juice had the highest HEI 2010 scores of all the consumption patterns. CONCLUSIONS Beverage consumption patterns built around milk and/or 100% juice were relatively uncommon. Promoting the drinking of milk and 100% juice, in preference to other caloric beverages, may be an effective strategy to improve children's diet quality. Restricting milk and 100% juice consumption may encourage the selection of other caloric beverages.