A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, multicenter clinical trial to assess the efficacy and safety of Emblica officinalis extract in patients with dyslipidemia.
BMC complementary and alternative medicine. 2019;19(1):27
Plain language summary
Emblica officinalis (Amla or Indian gooseberry) is a fruit that has been traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicine. It has been shown to be effective in the management of dyslipidemia (abnormal fat metabolism), a risk factor for heart disease, in animal models and in pilot clinical studies without major side effects. This multicenter, randomised, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a proprietary full spectrum amla extract (containing pulp and seeds) in patients with dyslipidemia. 98 patients were enrolled and all completed the 12 week study. None of them were taking any medication for their dyslipidaemia. All the patients enrolled in the study were also asked to initiate lifestyle changes (healthy diet with exercise at least 4 days a week). Apart from conventional lipid parameters, the investigators also measured a number of other parameters relevant to heart disease, including the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP, a marker of heart disease risk). Compared to the placebo group the amla group had significantly greater reductions in triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP, a better predictor of heart disease risk). There were no significant changes in HDL-cholesterol, CoQ10 (lowering of CoQ10 is a concern with many cholesterol lowering drugs), homocysteine, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or fasting blood glucose. Four non-serious adverse events were observed: mild headache, mild fever, two times gastritis (all resolved with standard treatment), three were in the placebo group, one in the amla group. There were no changes in routine blood tests and vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, respiratory rate). The authors conclude that the amla extract has significant potential to improve dyslipidaemia without side effects commonly seen with cholesterol lowering drugs.
BACKGROUND Dyslipidemia is one of the most frequently implicated risk factors for development of atherosclerosis. This study evaluated the efficacy of amla (Emblica officinalis) extract (composed of polyphenols, triterpenoids, oils etc. as found in the fresh wild amla fruit) in patients with dyslipidemia. METHODS A total of 98 dyslipidemic patients were enrolled and divided into amla and placebo groups. Amla extract (500 mg) or a matching placebo capsule was administered twice daily for 12 weeks to the respective group of patients. The patients were followed up for 12 weeks and efficacy of study medication was assessed by analyzing lipid profile. Other parameters evaluated were apolipoprotein B (Apo B), apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1), Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fasting blood sugar (FBS), homocysteine and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). RESULTS In 12 weeks, the major lipids such as total cholesterol (TC) (p = 0.0003), triglyceride (TG) (p = 0.0003), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (p = 0.0064) and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) (p = 0.0001) were significantly lower in amla group as compared to placebo group. Additionally, a 39% reduction in atherogenic index of the plasma (AIP) (p = 0.0177) was also noted in amla group. The ratio of Apo B to Apo A1 was reduced more (p = 0.0866) in the amla group as compared to the placebo. There was no significant change in CoQ10 level of amla (p = 0.2942) or placebo groups (p = 0.6744). Although there was a general trend of FBS reduction, the numbers of participants who may be classified as pre-diabetes and diabetes groups (FBS > 100 mg/dl) in the amla group were only 8. These results show that the amla extract used in the study is potentially a hypoglycaemic as well. However, this needs reconfirmation in a larger study. CONCLUSIONS The Amla extract has shown significant potential in reducing TC and TG levels as well as lipid ratios, AIP and apoB/apo A-I in dyslipidemic persons and thus has scope to treat general as well as diabetic dyslipidemia. A single agent to reduce cholesterol as well as TG is rare. Cholesterol reduction is achieved without concomitant reduction of Co Q10, in contrast to what is observed with statins. TRIAL REGISTRATION Registered with Clinical Trials Registry- India at www.ctri.nic.in (Registration number: CTRI/2015/04/005682 ) on 8 April 2015 (retrospectively registered).
Nutraceutical approach for the management of cardiovascular risk - a combination containing the probiotic Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and red yeast rice extract: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Nutrition journal. 2019;18(1):13
Plain language summary
Probiotics have been shown to reduce total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C – often called ‘bad’ cholesterol) in people with moderately raised cholesterol levels. A specific strain of probiotic called Bifidobacterium longum BB536, may decrease TC and LDL-C by reducing the reabsorption of cholesterol from the intestine, and, combined with other natural supplements, may be useful to manage high cholesterol in people at low risk of heart disease. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a nutraceutical (Lactoflorene Colesterolo®), containing Bifidobacterium longum BB536 (1bn CFUs) combined with red yeast rice (RYR) extract (10 mg/day monacolin K), niacin (16mg) and coenzyme Q10 (20mg) on levels of cholesterol and fats in the blood. This was a 12-week randomised, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, in which 33 adults at low risk of heart disease were given either the Bifidobacterium combination, or a placebo. Treatment with the Bifidobacterium combination significantly reduced total cholesterol by 16.7%, LDL-C by 25.7%, non-HDL-C by 24% and apolipoprotein-B by 17%. Triglycerides, HDL-C, apolipoprotein AI, lipoprotein (a) and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) were unchanged. Markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption suggested that a reduction in the synthesis of cholesterol had occurred without increased absorption of cholesterol. No adverse effects were reported in the study and the compliance rate was high at 97%. The use of nutraceuticals in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, as well as in other areas related to chronic diseases like cancer, is currently expanding.
BACKGROUND Probiotics incorporated into dairy products have been shown to reduce total (TC) and LDL cholesterolemia (LDL-C) in subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia. More specifically, probiotics with high biliary salt hydrolase activity, e.g. Bifidobacterium longum BB536, may decrease TC and LDL-C by lowering intestinal cholesterol reabsorption and, combined with other nutraceuticals, may be useful to manage hypercholesterolemia in subjects with low cardiovascular (CV) risk. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a nutraceutical combination containing Bifidobacterium longum BB536, red yeast rice (RYR) extract (10 mg/day monacolin K), niacin, coenzyme Q10 (Lactoflorene Colesterolo®). The end-points were changes of lipid CV risk markers (LDL-C, TC, non-HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), HDL-C, apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI), lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9)), and of markers of cholesterol synthesis/absorption. METHODS A 12-week randomized, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Thirty-three subjects (18-70 years) in primary CV prevention and low CV risk (SCORE 0-1% in 24 and 2-4% in 9 subjects; LDL-C: 130-200 mg/dL) were randomly allocated to either nutraceutical (N = 16) or placebo (N = 17). RESULTS Twelve-week treatment with the nutraceutical combination, compared to placebo, significantly reduced TC (- 16.7%), LDL-C (- 25.7%), non-HDL-C (- 24%) (all p < 0.0001), apoB (- 17%, p = 0.003). TG, HDL-C, apoAI, Lp(a), PCSK9 were unchanged. Lathosterol:TC ratio was significantly reduced by the nutraceutical combination, while campesterol:TC ratio and sitosterol:TC ratio did not change, suggesting reduction of synthesis without increased absorption of cholesterol. No adverse effects and a 97% compliance were observed. CONCLUSIONS A 12-week treatment with a nutraceutical combination containing the probiotic Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and RYR extract significantly improved the atherogenic lipid profile and was well tolerated by low CV risk subjects. TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT02689934 .
Effect of yerba mate and green tea on paraoxonase and leptin levels in patients affected by overweight or obesity and dyslipidemia: a randomized clinical trial.
Nutrition journal. 2019;18(1):5
Plain language summary
Yerba mate is a popular tea-like beverage, traditionally consumed in Latin and South America. Yerba mate contains a range of plant compounds that may have beneficial effects on health, such as weight loss and antioxidant activity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the intake of yerba mate and green tea on serum levels of leptin, a hormone involved in regulating appetite, and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), an enzyme that can destroy harmful oxidised fats in the blood. 142 overweight or obese adults aged 35-60 years, with abnormal levels of fats in the blood and no history of coronary artery disease took part in this controlled, randomised clinical trial. Participants drank 1 litre of either yerba mate, green tea or apple tea daily for eight weeks. Blood PON-1 and leptin levels were measured at the beginning and end of the study. The group drinking yerba mate showed a significant 9.7% increase in blood levels of PON-1, but no difference in leptin levels. The consumption of green tea resulted in no significant differences in the levels of PON-1 or leptin. The increase in PON-1 levels in the yerba mate group was significantly associated with increased levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c - often called ‘good’ cholesterol). The authors concluded that drinking yerba mate increased antioxidant capacity by increasing blood levels of PON-1 and was positively associated with increased HDL-c, demonstrating a protective role of this beverage against thickening and hardening of the arteries.
BACKGROUND This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the intake of yerba mate (YM) and green tea (GT) on serum levels of leptin and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), compared to control. METHODS Controlled, randomized clinical trial (RCT) that evaluated 142 men and women affected by overweight or obesity aged 35-60 years, untreated dyslipidemia and no history of coronary artery disease. Participants were randomized to ingest 1000 mL GT, YM or apple tea (AT, control group) daily, during eight weeks. Serum PON-1 and leptin levels were analyzed by ELISA immunoassay at the beginning (baseline) and after eight weeks of intervention. RESULTS The intake of 1 l of YM/day resulted in significant increase in serum levels of PON-1 (9.7%; p = 0.005). The consumption of GT induced no significant difference in the levels of PON-1 (p = 0.154) and leptin (p = 0.783). Intergroup analysis showed a significant difference (p = 0.036) in the variation of PON-1 levels in the YM group when compared to GT and AT groups. In addition, the increase in PON-1 levels in the YM group was significantly associated with increased HDL-c (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS The intake of yerba mate increased the antioxidant capacity by increasing serum levels of PON-1 and was positively associated with increased HDL-c, stressing the protective role of this beverage against atherosclerotic diseases. GT intake had no significant effect on serum levels of PON-1 and leptin. TRIAL REGISTRATION This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov under protocol number NCT00933647.
Modified Mediterranean-ketogenic diet modulates gut microbiome and short-chain fatty acids in association with Alzheimer's disease markers in subjects with mild cognitive impairment.
Plain language summary
The exact causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are unknown, but there is evidence that AD is related to chronic inflammation, and it is thought that the gut bacteria (microbiome) and their metabolites can directly or indirectly affect brain functions. Diet can affect both the gut microbiome and brain health, and a ketogenic diet has been proposed to modulate processes associated with AD and is also known to affect gut microbial balance. The aim of this randomized, double-blind, crossover, pilot trial was to evaluate whether and how a modified Mediterranean-ketogenic diet (MMKD) alters the gut microbiome composition and whether this is associated with biomarkers for AD. 17 participants completed the study, 11 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, an early stage of AD), and 6 counterparts with normal cognitive function (CN). Participants were randomly assigned to either a MMKD or an American Heart Association Diet (AHAD) for 6-weeks, followed by a 6-week washout, and then a 6-week intervention with the other diet. At baseline, participants with MCI had a microbiome composition different to that of the CN controls, with that of the MCI participants being considered less beneficial and potentially more pro-inflammatory. This difference was associated with biomarkers of AD. There was no difference in levels of microbial metabolites at baseline. Several types of bacteria were affected by the MMKD and AHAD, as were levels of faecal bacterial metabolites (short chain fatty acids). In particular, on the MMKD there was an increase in the metabolite butyrate which possesses neuroprotective actions and improves brain health. The authors conclude that the MMKD has a beneficial effect on the gut microbiome and associated AD biomarkers.
BACKGROUND Alzheimer's disease (AD) prevalence is increasing, but its etiology remains elusive. Gut microbes can contribute to AD pathology and may help identifying novel markers and therapies against AD. Herein, we examine how the gut microbiome differs in older adults with mild cognitive impairment compared to cognitively normal counterparts, and whether and how a modified Mediterranean-ketogenic diet (MMKD) alters the gut microbiome signature in association with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers. METHODS A randomized, double-blind, cross-over, single-center pilot study of MMKD versus American Heart Association Diet (AHAD) intervention is performed on 17 subjects (age: 64.6 ± 6.4 yr), of which 11 have mild cognitive impairment, while 6 are cognitively normal. Subjects undergo MMKD and AHAD intervention for 6-weeks separated by 6-weeks washout periods. Gut microbiome, fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and markers of AD in CSF including amyloid β (Aβ)-40 and Aß-42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau-181 (tau-p181) are measured at before and after diet interventions. FINDINGS At baseline, subjects with normal vs. impaired cognition show no notable difference in microbiome diversity but several unique microbial signatures are detected in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Proteobacteria correlate positively with Aβ-42: Aβ-40 while fecal propionate and butyrate correlates negatively with Aβ-42 in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Several bacteria are differently affected by the two diets with distinct patterns between cognitively normal and impaired subjects. Notably, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae, Akkermansia, Slackia, Christensenellaceae and Erysipelotriaceae increases while that of Bifidobacterium and Lachnobacterium reduces on MMKD, while AHAD increases Mollicutes. MMKD slightly reduces fecal lactate and acetate while increasing propionate and butyrate. Conversely, AHAD increases acetate and propionate while reducing butyrate. INTERPRETATION The data suggest that specific gut microbial signatures may depict the mild cognitive impairment and that the MMKD can modulate the gut microbiome and metabolites in association with improved AD biomarkers in CSF.
Effect of 12-Week Daily Intake of the High-Lycopene Tomato ( ), A Variety Named "PR-7", on Lipid Metabolism: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study.
Plain language summary
Tomatoes are a rich source of lycopene, a compound believed to have many health benefits. Researchers in Japan conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effects of eating a type of tomato bred to be high in lycopene on 74 healthy volunteers with raised cholesterol levels. Participants were given 50g per day of either semi-dried high-lycopene tomato or lycopene-free tomato. Those eating the high-lycopene tomatoes significantly reduced their levels of LDL cholesterol over 12 weeks. The researchers concluded that their findings support the health benefits of eating tomatoes rich in lycopene.
undefined: Tomato ( ) is a rich source of lycopene, a carotenoid that confers various positive biological effects such as improved lipid metabolism. Here, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparative study to investigate the effects of regular and continuous intake of a new high-lycopene tomato, a variety named PR-7, for 12 weeks, based on 74 healthy Japanese subjects with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels ≥120 to <160 mg/dL. The subjects were randomly assigned to either the high-lycopene tomato or placebo (lycopene-free tomato) group. Each subject in the high-lycopene group ingested 50 g of semidried PR-7 (lycopene, 22.0-27.8 mg/day) each day for 12 weeks, while subjects in the placebo group ingested placebo semidried tomato. Medical interviews were conducted, vital signs were monitored, body composition was determined, and blood and saliva samples were taken at weeks 0 (baseline), 4, 8, and 12. The primary outcome assessed was LDL-C. The intake of high-lycopene tomato increased lycopene levels in this group compared to levels in the placebo group ( < 0.001). In addition, high-lycopene tomato intake improved LDL-C ( = 0.027). The intake of high-lycopene tomato, PR-7, reduced LDL-C and was confirmed to be safe.
Plant-Based Diets for Cardiovascular Safety and Performance in Endurance Sports.
Plain language summary
Studies suggest that endurance athletes are at higher risk of some types of heart disease. This review looked at the ability of plant-based diets to reduce risk and affect athletic performance. The authors found evidence that plant-based diets are associated with beneficial effects on health, such as reducing body fat, blood pressure, cholesterol, oxidative stress and inflammation. The authors of this review argue that there is a sound scientific basis for recommending plant-based diets to endurance athletes.
Studies suggest that endurance athletes are at higher-than-average risk for atherosclerosis and myocardial damage. The ability of plant-based regimens to reduce risk and affect performance was reviewed. The effect of plant-based diets on cardiovascular risk factors, particularly plasma lipid concentrations, body weight, and blood pressure, and, as part of a healthful lifestyle, reversing existing atherosclerotic lesions, may provide a substantial measure of cardiovascular protection. In addition, plant-based diets may offer performance advantages. They have consistently been shown to reduce body fat, leading to a leaner body composition. Because plants are typically high in carbohydrate, they foster effective glycogen storage. By reducing blood viscosity and improving arterial flexibility and endothelial function, they may be expected to improve vascular flow and tissue oxygenation. Because many vegetables, fruits, and other plant-based foods are rich in antioxidants, they help reduce oxidative stress. Diets emphasizing plant foods have also been shown to reduce indicators of inflammation. These features of plant-based diets may present safety and performance advantages for endurance athletes. The purpose of this review was to explore the role of nutrition in providing cardioprotection, with a focus on plant-based diets previously shown to provide cardiac benefits.
Dietary Patterns in Secondary Prevention of Heart Failure: A Systematic Review.
Plain language summary
Diet is recognised as an important factor in the prevention of heart failure, however there is no consensus about which dietary protocol is the most effective. This systematic review aims to clarify links between different dietary measures and markers of heart failure. The review included 12 studies of different types (randomised controlled trials, cross-sectional studies and cohort studies), which examined the DASH diet, Mediterranean diet, high protein diet and low carbohydrate diet. The studies examining the DASH diet demonstrated improvements in various measures of cardiac function and may have benefits for secondary prevention of heart failure. The Mediterranean diet was associated with lower levels of inflammation and improved cardiac function in cross-sectional studies only. High protein and low carbohydrate diets also demonstrated positive effects on markers of heart function however, only one study for each was included. The authors conclude that the current science suggests a positive role for diet in relation to prevention of heart failure and call for further RCTs to be conducted to identify which elements of these different diets are impacting on markers of heart failure.
BACKGROUND Diet is an important factor in secondary prevention of heart failure (HF) but there is still no consensus as to which dietary model should be adopted by this population. This systematic review aims to clarify the relationship between dietary patterns and secondary prevention in HF. METHODS We searched the Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases for studies with different dietary patterns and outcomes of secondary prevention in HF. No limitation was used in the search. RESULTS 1119 articles were identified, 12 met the inclusion criteria. Studies with Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), Mediterranean, Hyperproteic and Low-carb diets were found. The DASH pattern showed improvement in cardiac function, functional capacity, blood pressure, oxidative stress and mortality. The Mediterranean diet had a correlation with inflammation, quality of life and cardiac function but just on cross-sectional studies. Regarding the Hyperproteic and Low-carb diets only one study was found with each pattern and both were able to improve functional capacity in patients with HF. CONCLUSIONS DASH pattern may have benefits in the secondary prevention of HF. The Mediterranean diet demonstrated positive correlation with factors of secondary prevention of HF but need more RCTs and cohort studies to confirm these effects. In addition, the Hyperproteic and Low-carb diets, despite the lack of studies, also demonstrated positive effects on the functional capacity in patients with HF.
Cardiovascular Health Benefits of Specific Vegetable Types: A Narrative Review.
Plain language summary
Diets high in vegetables are linked with a lower incidence of chronic disease. Some vegetables may have much larger health benefits in comparison to others, and therefore dietary guidelines could be developed to include targeted advice on consuming specific types of vegetables with the greatest health benefits. This review of observational studies focused on the cardiovascular health benefits of specific vegetable types. Vegetables discussed in this review were grouped into the following types: leafy green, cruciferous, alliums, yellow-orange-red and legumes. These vegetables contain many nutrients and phytochemicals that have been proposed to have benefits for cardiovascular health. The authors looked at the results from nearly 100 observational studies. Most of the studies were carried out on older adults; some were focussed on a single gender (male or female), and some were mixed. Follow up periods in the studies ranged from 3 years to 28 years. Most of the studies relied on food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) to estimate vegetable consumption, and many did not define the size of a vegetable portion in grams. The percentage of studies demonstrating significant benefits of vegetable consumption on CVD ranged from 25% for legumes to 43% for leafy greens. The strongest beneficial effects on CVD risk were seen for leafy green and cruciferous vegetables. The authors concluded that the evidence in this review suggests intake of leafy green and cruciferous vegetables may confer strong cardiovascular health benefits. Increasing vegetable intake, with a focus on leafy green and cruciferous vegetables may provide the greatest benefits.
Conflicts of interest:
Educator for various organizations, such as Institute for Functional Medicine, American Academy for Anti-Aging Medicine
This review highlights the role of specific types of vegetables based on color and nutrients for cardiovascular health benefit.
Implications for practice:
The authors investigated whether some vegetable types were more relevant for cardiovascular-related issues than others. Based on their review of the scientific literature, green, leafy vegetables and cruciferous vegetables were found to be most impactful.
Implications for research:
This review suggests that more research is needed to understand how certain plant foods, vegetables, and phytochemicals may be functionally important for certain organ systems.
Adequate vegetable consumption is one of the cornerstones of a healthy diet. The recommendation to increase vegetable intake is part of most dietary guidelines. Despite widespread and long-running public health messages to increase vegetable intake, similar to other countries worldwide, less than 1 in 10 adult Australians manage to meet target advice. Dietary guidelines are predominantly based on studies linking diets high in vegetables with lower risk of chronic diseases. Identifying vegetables with the strongest health benefits and incorporating these into dietary recommendations may enhance public health initiatives around vegetable intake. These enhanced public health initiatives would be targeted at reducing the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Specific vegetable types contain high levels of particular nutrients and phytochemicals linked with cardiovascular health benefits. However, it is not clear if increasing intake of these specific vegetable types will result in larger benefits on risk of chronic diseases. This review presents an overview of the evidence for the relationships of specific types of vegetables, including leafy green, cruciferous, allium, yellow-orange-red and legumes, with subclinical and clinical CVD outcomes in observational epidemiological studies.
Spices and Atherosclerosis.
Plain language summary
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the world. Atherosclerosis, characterised by the accumulation of fat and inflammation in blood vessels, is the main feature of CVD. Common spices such as pepper, ginger, garlic, onion, cinnamon and chilli may have effects on the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. In this review, the authors focused on the potential protective effects of spices, in atherosclerosis and CVD. Most studies to date have been carried out either in cell culture or in animals. These have revealed various potential mechanisms by which spices exert their beneficial effects, including anti-oxidant, anti-atherogenic, anti-coagulant, anti-inflammatory and cholesterol-lowering properties. There are some human studies evaluating the effects of spices on high blood pressure. Although saffron, turmeric, and chilli pepper had no effect on blood pressure, cinnamon demonstrated significant blood pressure lowering effects in patients with diabetes. Garlic has been shown to have the potential to reduce blood pressure in patients with high blood pressure. These studies provide information on the beneficial roles of spices in reducing cardiovascular risk factors. The types of spices consumed vary across cultures, and currently there are no available population studies showing that consumption of spices is associated with reduction of CVD nor any recommendations for the amounts of spices to be consumed. The authors conclude that the consumption of spices should be encouraged across countries to promote good health.
Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the world. Atherosclerosis, characterized by lipid accumulation and chronic inflammation in the vessel wall, is the main feature of cardiovascular disease. Although the amounts of fruits and vegetables present in the diets vary by country, diets, worldwide, contain large amounts of spices; this may have positive or negative effects on the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. In this review, we focused on the potential protective effects of specific nutrients from spices, such as pepper, ginger, garlic, onion, cinnamon and chili, in atherosclerosis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms, epidemiological analysis, and clinical studies focusing on a variety of spices are covered in this review. Based on the integrated information, we aimed to raise specific recommendations for people with different dietary styles for the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease through dietary habit adjustments.
Role of whole grains versus fruits and vegetables in reducing subclinical inflammation and promoting gastrointestinal health in individuals affected by overweight and obesity: a randomized controlled trial.
Nutrition journal. 2018;17(1):72
Plain language summary
Poor diet is the leading risk factor for premature death and disability in the United States. Poor diets lead to metabolic syndrome and its associated diseases such as heart disease and diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of increasing intake of wholegrains or fruit and vegetables against a typical Western diet on inflammatory makers and gut microbiota composition. The study was a randomized, parallel arm feeding trial which enrolled fifty-two participants. The subjects were randomized into three groups (control, wholegrains, and fruit and vegetables). Results indicate that the wholegrain and fruit and vegetable diets had significant positive impacts on inflammatory markers. Interestingly, while both treatment groups decreased inflammatory markers, each decreased a different biomarker. The treatments induced individualised changes in microbiota composition such that treatment group differences were not identified. Authors conclude that wholegrain and fruit and vegetable diets have a positive impact on metabolic health in individuals affected by overweight or obesity.
BACKGROUND Whole grains (WG) and fruits and vegetables (FV) have been shown to reduce the risk of metabolic disease, possibly via modulation of the gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of increasing intake of either WG or FV on inflammatory markers and gut microbiota composition. METHODS A randomized parallel arm feeding trial was completed on forty-nine subjects with overweight or obesity and low intakes of FV and WG. Individuals were randomized into three groups (3 servings/d provided): WG, FV, and a control (refined grains). Stool and blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study and after 6 weeks. Inflammatory markers [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)] were measured. Stool sample analysis included short/branched chain fatty acids (S/BCFA) and microbiota composition. RESULTS There was a significant decrease in LBP for participants on the WG (- 0.2 μg/mL, p = 0.02) and FV (- 0.2 μg/mL, p = 0.005) diets, with no change in those on the control diet (0.1 μg/mL, p = 0.08). The FV diet induced a significant change in IL-6 (- 1.5 pg/mL, p = 0.006), but no significant change was observed for the other treatments (control, - 0.009 pg/mL, p = 0.99; WG, - 0.29, p = 0.68). The WG diet resulted in a significant decrease in TNF-α (- 3.7 pg/mL; p < 0.001), whereas no significant effects were found for those on the other diets (control, - 0.6 pg/mL, p = 0.6; FV, - 1.4 pg/mL, p = 0.2). The treatments induced individualized changes in microbiota composition such that treatment group differences were not identified, except for a significant increase in α-diversity in the FV group. The proportions of Clostridiales (Firmicutes phylum) at baseline were correlated with the magnitude of change in LBP during the study. CONCLUSIONS These data demonstrate that WG and FV intake can have positive effects on metabolic health; however, different markers of inflammation were reduced on each diet suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effects were facilitated via different mechanisms. The anti-inflammatory effects were not related to changes in gut microbiota composition during the intervention, but were correlated with microbiota composition at baseline. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT02602496 , Nov 4, 2017.