The Differences between Gluten Sensitivity, Intestinal Biomarkers and Immune Biomarkers in Patients with First-Episode and Chronic Schizophrenia.
Journal of clinical medicine. 2020;9(11)
Plain language summary
Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous neuroimmune disorder with unknown mechanisms and aetiology. The goal of this clinical study was to compare and evaluate IgG and IgA sensitivity, inflammation, and gut integrity between 52 first episode Schizophrenia patients, 50 chronic Schizophrenia patients, and 60 healthy controls to explain whether there were any associations between these markers. Study results show that antigliadin IgG and IgA antibodies, as well as inflammatory markers such as hs-CRP and IL-6, were significantly higher in the first episodes of schizophrenia and chronic schizophrenia patients when compared to the healthy controls. Schizophrenia risk was 4-7% higher among those with elevated Antigliadin IgG and IgA antibody levels. In addition, smoking cigarettes has been shown to increase the risk of developing schizophrenia. Patients with chronic schizophrenia showed elevated levels of anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody and soluble CD14, indicating bacterial translocation and immune activation. To understand the mechanisms behind chronic Schizophrenia, which link inflammation, immune responses, and the gut-brain axis, further robust larger studies are necessary. The results of this study can be used by healthcare professionals to understand the relationship between intestinal permeability, inflammation, and food hypersensitivity.
Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder without a fully elucidated etiology and mechanisms. One likely explanation for the development of schizophrenia is low-grade inflammation, possibly caused by processes in the gastrointestinal tract related to gluten sensitivity. The aims of this study were to: (1) compare levels of markers of gluten sensitivity, inflammation and gut permeability, and (2) determine associations between gluten sensitivity, inflammation, and intestinal permeability in patients with first-episode/chronic (FS/CS) schizophrenia and healthy individuals (HC). The total sample comprised 162 individuals (52 FS; 50 CS, and 60 HC). The examination included clinical variables, nutritional assessment, and serum concentrations of: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble CD14 (sCD14), anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody (ASCA), antigliadin antibodies (AGA) IgA/IgG, antibodies against tissue transglutaminase 2 (anti-tTG) IgA, anti-deamidated gliadin peptides (anti-DGP) IgG. A significant difference between groups was found in sCD14, ASCA, hs-CRP, IL-6 and AGA IgA levels. AGA IgG/IgA levels were higher in the FS (11.54%; 30.77%) and CS (26%; 20%) groups compared to HC. The association between intestinal permeability and inflammation in the schizophrenic patients only was noted. The risk for developing schizophrenia was odds ratio (OR) = 4.35 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.23-15.39) for AGA IgA and 3.08 (95% CI 1.19-7.99) for positive AGA IgG. Inflammation and food hypersensitivity reactions initiated by increased intestinal permeability may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The immune response to gluten in FS differs from that found in CS.
Chronic Food Antigen-specific IgG-mediated Hypersensitivity Reaction as A Risk Factor for Adolescent Depressive Disorder.
Genomics, proteomics & bioinformatics. 2019;17(2):183-189
Plain language summary
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) among adolescents has been on the rise recently. A high level of systemic low-grade inflammation is found in the serum of MDD adults, which is believed to interfere with neurotransmitter metabolism, resulting in symptoms of depression. Furthermore, disruption of the blood-brain barrier may inhibit neurotransmitter metabolism. One hundred and eighty-four adolescents with moderate MDD were evaluated against the same number of healthy controls to determine their serum levels of markers of inflammation, homocysteine, food sensitivity, histamine, and histamine metabolism. The study found that histamine levels and food antigen-specific antibodies in MDD adolescent patients were significantly higher than those in the control group. Increasing histamine levels, food-specific IgG levels, and S100 calcium-binding protein B levels suggest blood-brain barrier leakage may contribute to adolescent depression. There is still much to be learned about the pathophysiology of MDD, and further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved. The results of this study can be used by healthcare professionals to understand the role of histamine and food sensitivities in the development of adolescent depression rather than low-grade inflammation.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most common nonfatal disease burden worldwide. Systemic chronic low-grade inflammation has been reported to be associated with MDD progression by affecting monoaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission. However, whether various proinflammatory cytokines are abnormally elevated before the first episode of depression is still largely unclear. Here, we evaluated 184 adolescent patients who were experiencing their first episode of depressive disorder, and the same number of healthy individuals was included as controls. We tested the serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IgE, 14 different types of food antigen-specific IgG, histamine, homocysteine, S100 calcium-binding protein B, and diamine oxidase. We were not able to find any significant differences in the serum levels of hs-CRP or TNF-α between the two groups. However, the histamine level of the patients (12.35 μM) was significantly higher than that of the controls (9.73 μM, P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U test). Moreover, significantly higher serum food antigen-specific IgG positive rates were also found in the patient group. Furthermore, over 80% of patients exhibited prolonged food intolerance with elevated levels of serum histamine, leading to hyperpermeability of the blood-brain barrier, which has previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of MDD. Hence, prolonged high levels of serum histamine could be a risk factor for depressive disorders, and antihistamine release might represent a novel therapeutic strategy for depression treatment.
Association between plasma fatty acids and inflammatory markers in patients with and without insulin resistance and in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, a cross-sectional study.
Nutrition journal. 2018;17(1):26
Plain language summary
It is known that people with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have increased inflammation and raised levels of circulating inflammatory molecules. The presence of insulin resistance is thought to increase these levels, as are certain fatty acids coming from dietary fats. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to compare the levels of inflammatory biomarkers in patients with CVD with and without insulin resistance, and to evaluate the possible link between the blood levels of fatty acids and inflammatory biomarkers among these patients. The authors concluded that the CVD patients with insulin resistance had a higher concentration of some inflammatory molecules in the blood than those without insulin resistance. They also observed that saturated fatty acids were linked to higher levels of inflammatory molecules in the blood, while unsaturated fatty acids correlated with lower levels.
BACKGROUND Proinflammatory biomarkers levels are increased among patients with cardiovascular disease, and it is known that both the presence of insulin resistance and diet may influence those levels. However, these associations are not well studied among patients with established cardiovascular disease. Our objective is to compare inflammatory biomarker levels among cardiovascular disease secondary prevention patients with and without insulin resistance, and to evaluate if there is any association between plasma fatty acid levels and inflammatory biomarker levels among them. METHODS In this cross-sectional sub-study from the BALANCE Program Trial, we collected data from 359 patients with established cardiovascular disease. Plasma fatty acids and inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha) were measured. Biomarkers and plasma fatty acid levels of subjects across insulin resistant and not insulin resistant groups were compared, and general linear models were used to examine the association between plasma fatty acids and inflammatory biomarkers. RESULTS Subjects with insulin resistance had a higher concentration of hs-CRP (p = 0.002) and IL-6 (p = 0.002) than subjects without insulin resistance. Among subjects without insulin resistance there was a positive association between stearic fatty acid and IL-6 (p = 0.032), and a negative association between alpha-linolenic fatty acid and pro-inflammatory biomarkers (p < 0.05). Among those with insulin resistance there was a positive association between monounsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic fatty acid and adiponectin (p < 0.05), and a negative association between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and pro-inflammatory biomarkers (p < 0.05), as well as a negative association between polyunsaturated fatty acids and adiponectin (p < 0.05). Our study has not found any association between hs-CRP and plasma fatty acids. CONCLUSIONS Subjects in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease with insulin resistance have a higher concentration of hs-CRP and IL-6 than individuals without insulin resistance, and these inflammatory biomarkers are positively associated with saturated fatty acids and negatively associated with unsaturated fatty acids.