Probiotic : Effective for Managing Childhood Diarrhea by Altering Gut Microbiota and Attenuating Fecal Inflammatory Markers.
Plain language summary
Acute diarrhoea caused by pathogens may induce gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestines), bloody stool, or severe intra-abdominal infections that establish disease and increase the economic burden, especially among infantile and childhood populations. The aim of the study was to determine whether probiotics (Lactobacilluscasei) inhibited gastrointestinal infection and reduced the associated inﬂammatory response. The study is a prospective, randomized, case-controlled study which enrolled 81 children aged between 6 months and 6 years. The participants were divided into 2 groups (Lactobacilluscasei variety rhamnosus treatment and a no probiotic control). Study results indicate that probiotics can reduce the severity and duration of diarrhoea. Furthermore, probiotic colonisation improved bowel habits and reduced abdominal pain or colic and bloating. Authors conclude that the eﬃcacy of probiotic preparations for the treatment of acute childhood diarrhoea is related to individual bacteria strains. Thus, the population and modulation of intestinal gut/probiotic bacteria can be restored through the reduction of intestinal inﬂammatory reactions.
BACKGROUND Acute diarrhea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and an economic burden for families. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of probiotics on clinical symptoms, intestinal microbiota, and inflammatory markers during childhood diarrhea. METHODS Children ( = 81) aged six months to six years (mean age 2.31 years) hospitalized for acute diarrhea were randomized to receive probiotics ( variety ; = 42) or no probiotics ( = 39) orally twice daily for seven days. Feces samples were also collected to evaluate microbial content using a traditional agar plate and next-generation sequencing. Immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin, and calprotectin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and compared in different groups. Other clinical symptoms or signs, including fever, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloated abdomen, daily intake, appetite, and body weight were also assessed. RESULTS Data were collected from 81 individuals across three different time points. Total fecal IgA levels in fecal extracts of the probiotics group were higher than those in the control group, reaching statistical significance ( 0.05). Concentrations of fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin were significantly downregulated in patients with probiotic variety (Lc) consumption compared to those of the control ( 0.05). Probiotic Lc administration may be beneficial for gut-microbiota modulation, as shown by the data collected at one week after enrollment. Counts of and species were elevated in stool culture of the probiotic group. Appetite and oral intake, body-weight gain, abdominal pain, bloating, as well as bowel habits (diarrhea) were much better in children receiving probiotics compared with those in the control group. CONCLUSION Fecal IgA increased during acute diarrhea under Lc treatment; in contrast, fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin were downregulated during acute diarrhea under Lc treatment. Probiotic Lc may be a useful supplement for application in children during acute diarrhea to reduce clinical severity and intestinal inflammatory reaction.
Infection in Chronic Inflammation and Gastrointestinal Cancer.
Diseases (Basel, Switzerland). 2019;7(1)
Plain language summary
Salmonella is a group of bacteria that is normally associated with food poisoning. In 2% to 5% of people with Salmonella food poisoning, the bacteria remain in the body, leading to long-term infection, which has been linked to various health problems. This literature review looked at the link between Salmonella infection and the development of diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), gall bladder cancer and colon cancer. The authors describe how long-term Salmonella infection plays a role in several biological processes, such as stem cell maintenance, host cell transformation, and gut dysbiosis. Leaky gut, dysbiosis and inflammation are induced by the bacteria and contribute to the development of cancer. The authors conclude that more studies are needed to further understand the relationship between Salmonella infections and the risk of colon cancer.
undefined: not only causes acute infections, but can also cause patients to become chronic "asymptomatic" carriers. has been verified as a pathogenic factor that contributes to chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis. This review summarizes the acute and chronic infection and describes the current research progress of infection contributing to inflammatory bowel disease and cancer. Furthermore, this review explores the underlying biological mechanism of the host signaling pathways manipulated by effector molecules. Using experimental animal models, researchers have shown that infection is related to host biological processes, such as host cell transformation, stem cell maintenance, and changes of the gut microbiota (dysbiosis). Finally, this review discusses the current challenges and future directions in studying infection and its association with human diseases.
Disruption of the Gut Ecosystem by Antibiotics.
Yonsei medical journal. 2018;59(1):4-12
Plain language summary
The gut microbiome is a complex ecosystem of different micro-organisms, such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, living in the human intestines. It’s involved in numerous functions, such as extracting energy and nutrition from food, protecting against disease-causing microorganisms, and supporting the immune system of the host, and therefore affecting human health and disease. This paper is a review of studies on the effects of antibiotics on the gut microbiota. It outlines how different types of antibiotics can alter the intestinal environment and the composition of the microbes, resulting in various physiological changes that can trigger disease. Relevant mechanisms, such as inflammatory response and the use of intestinal nutrients by infectious bacteria are discussed. Finally, it discusses faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and probiotics as treatment approaches, aimed at restoring a disturbed intestinal environment.
The intestinal microbiota is a complex ecosystem consisting of various microorganisms that expands human genetic repertoire and therefore affects human health and disease. The metabolic processes and signal transduction pathways of the host and intestinal microorganisms are intimately linked, and abnormal progression of each process leads to changes in the intestinal environment. Alterations in microbial communities lead to changes in functional structures based on the metabolites produced in the gut, and these environmental changes result in various bacterial infections and chronic enteric inflammatory diseases. Here, we illustrate how antibiotics are associated with an increased risk of antibiotic-associated diseases by driving intestinal environment changes that favor the proliferation and virulence of pathogens. Understanding the pathogenesis caused by antibiotics would be a crucial key to the treatment of antibiotic-associated diseases by mitigating changes in the intestinal environment and restoring it to its original state.
Interplay of host genetics and gut microbiota underlying the onset and clinical presentation of inflammatory bowel disease.
Plain language summary
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) present with a variety of clinical characteristics, making prevention, diagnosis and therapy very complex. Based on recent studies, it is hypothesised that the heterogeneity among patients with IBD is likely due to individual differences in the interaction between the host genome and gut microbiota. The aim of this case-control study was to analyse the gut microbiota, host genetics and clinical characteristics of 313 patients with IBD compared with 582 healthy controls. This extensive analysis has identified the gut microbiota as the key mediator in the development of IBD through new associations at the genetic and clinical level. Based on these findings, the authors conclude that a better understanding of gene-microbiota interactions can lead to new therapeutics and improved prevention strategies.
OBJECTIVE Patients with IBD display substantial heterogeneity in clinical characteristics. We hypothesise that individual differences in the complex interaction of the host genome and the gut microbiota can explain the onset and the heterogeneous presentation of IBD. Therefore, we performed a case-control analysis of the gut microbiota, the host genome and the clinical phenotypes of IBD. DESIGN Stool samples, peripheral blood and extensive phenotype data were collected from 313 patients with IBD and 582 truly healthy controls, selected from a population cohort. The gut microbiota composition was assessed by tag-sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. All participants were genotyped. We composed genetic risk scores from 11 functional genetic variants proven to be associated with IBD in genes that are directly involved in the bacterial handling in the gut: , , , and . RESULTS Strikingly, we observed significant alterations of the gut microbiota of healthy individuals with a high genetic risk for IBD: the IBD genetic risk score was significantly associated with a decrease in the genus in healthy controls (false discovery rate 0.017). Moreover, disease location was a major determinant of the gut microbiota: the gut microbiota of patients with colonic Crohn's disease (CD) is different from that of patients with ileal CD, with a decrease in alpha diversity associated to ileal disease (p=3.28×10 ). CONCLUSIONS We show for the first time that genetic risk variants associated with IBD influence the gut microbiota in healthy individuals. are acetate-to-butyrate converters, and a decrease has already been observed in patients with IBD.
Guts and Gall: Bile Acids in Regulation of Intestinal Epithelial Function in Health and Disease.
Physiological reviews. 2018;98(4):1983-2023
Plain language summary
Bile acids are bioactive bacterial metabolites which recent research shows may be helpful in protecting the epithelial cells which line the entire surface of the gastrointestinal tract. Many conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, chronic diarrhoea, pancreatitis, reflux esophagitis, and cancer are influenced by the integrity of the intestinal lining and/or disruption of epithelial transport; the movement of digestive enzymes, nutrients, electrolytes, and fluids. Bile acids are now being further studied as a new target for therapies to help these conditions. Typically, bile acids help with the digestion of fats. These acids are created in the liver and stored in the gall bladder and transported throughout the small and large intestines where they support the cells in the intestinal lining. This is the same lining which acts as a barrier to external pathogens and toxins. All the conditions above appear to show alterations in bile acid activity indicating a role for therapeutic targeting of bile acids in intestinal disease. This may include dietary manipulation, probiotics and fecal transfers to support bile acid production and function.
Epithelial cells line the entire surface of the gastrointestinal tract and its accessory organs where they primarily function in transporting digestive enzymes, nutrients, electrolytes, and fluid to and from the luminal contents. At the same time, epithelial cells are responsible for forming a physical and biochemical barrier that prevents the entry into the body of harmful agents, such as bacteria and their toxins. Dysregulation of epithelial transport and barrier function is associated with the pathogenesis of a number of conditions throughout the intestine, such as inflammatory bowel disease, chronic diarrhea, pancreatitis, reflux esophagitis, and cancer. Driven by discovery of specific receptors on intestinal epithelial cells, new insights into mechanisms that control their synthesis and enterohepatic circulation, and a growing appreciation of their roles as bioactive bacterial metabolites, bile acids are currently receiving a great deal of interest as critical regulators of epithelial function in health and disease. This review aims to summarize recent advances in this field and to highlight how bile acids are now emerging as exciting new targets for disease intervention.
Clinical relevance of IgG antibodies against food antigens in Crohn's disease: a double-blind cross-over diet intervention study.
Plain language summary
Environmental factors are thought to play a part in the development of or exacerbation of symptoms in Crohn's disease (CD), and patients often implicate food as a contributing factor. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) food reactions can be rare in IBD and immunoglobulin G (IgG) testing can be controversial, this study set out to compare IgG antibody reactions in 79 CD patients and 20 healthy individuals. The pilot study measured IgG levels against 271 foods in the blood. It then went on to measure stool frequency, abdominal pain and general well-being following a 6 week specific elimination diet (based on foods identified by the IgG testing) or a 6 week sham diet. 23 participants were included in the follow on 12 week, cross-over double blinded study. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) in stool was also measured to evaluate disease activity. The pilot study showed a significantly higher IgG reaction in the CD patients. In the follow-up study there was a decrease in stool frequency, abdominal pain and general well-being during the specific diet compared to the sham diet. EDN was found to decrease in both the specific and sham diet. It was concluded that IgG antibodies may contribute to CD but the mechanism is still not clear.
BACKGROUND Environmental factors are thought to play an important role in the development of Crohn's disease (CD). Immune responses against auto-antigens or food antigens may be a reason for the perpetuation of inflammation. METHODS In a pilot study, 79 CD patients and 20 healthy controls were examined for food immunoglobulin G (IgG). Thereafter, the clinical relevance of these food IgG antibodies was assessed in a double-blind cross-over study with 40 patients. Based on the IgG antibodies, a nutritional intervention was planned. The interferon (IFN)gamma secretion of T cells was measured. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin was quantified in stool. RESULTS The pilot study resulted in a significant difference of IgG antibodies in serum between CD patients and healthy controls. In 84 and 83% of the patients, respectively, IgG antibodies against processed cheese and yeast were detected. The daily stool frequency significantly decreased by 11% during a specific diet compared with a sham diet. Abdominal pain reduced and general well-being improved. IFNgamma secretion of T cells increased. No difference for eosinophil-derived neurotoxin in stool was detected. CONCLUSION A nutritional intervention based on circulating IgG antibodies against food antigens showed effects with respect to stool frequency. The mechanisms by which IgG antibodies might contribute to disease activity remain to be elucidated.
A randomized controlled study comparing elemental diet and steroid treatment in Crohn's disease.
Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 1997;11(4):735-40
Plain language summary
An elemental diet is considered an effective primary treatment for active Crohn's disease, usually given by a feeding tube. This RCT evaluated the affect of elemental diet administered orally on disease activity, intestinal permeability and nutritional status when compared to high-dose corticosteroids. 22 Crohn’s disease patients were enrolled of which 2 withdrew and 20 were randomised to oral elemental diet group (n-10) or corticosteroid plus normal diet group (n=10) for 2 weeks. After 2 weeks clinical disease activity improved significantly in both groups. Crohn’s disease activity and erythrocyte sedimentation rate improved in the diet group. Crohn's disease activity improved in the corticosteroid group. Disease remission rate was higher in the diet group (n=8) compared to the corticosteroid group (n=5). 12 months after the study there was no difference in disease relapse rate between groups. Intestinal permeability was significantly improved in the diet group only. However, at the start of the study, permeability levels were randomly lower in the corticosteroid group than the diet group so it is not possible to say that elemental diet was more effective than corticosteroids in promoting gut mucosal healing. Nutritional status improved in both groups but was more evident in the diet group. The authors conclude that an oral elemental diet is effective in promoting and maintaining remission of Crohn’s disease activity, in restoring intestinal permeability and improving nutritional status, and is generally well tolerated with a high degree of compliance.
BACKGROUND Elemental diet is considered an effective primary treatment for active Crohn's disease, but it is usually given by a feeding tube. METHODS Twenty-two patients (12 males, median age 30 years, range 18-60) with moderately active Crohn's disease were enrolled in a randomized study in which the efficacy of an elemental diet administered orally was compared to high-dose corticosteroids in achieving clinical and laboratory remission. Ten patients were treated by oral elemental diet (Peptamen, Clintec, USA) and 10 received corticosteroids. Both treatment regimens lasted 2 weeks. The two groups did not differ with respect to age, sex, body weight, location of disease, treatment or disease activity prior to the study. In all patients studied, simple Crohn's disease activity index, nutritional status (expressed as body mass index), percentage of ideal body weight, fat mass, fat free mass, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, interleukin-6, intestinal permeability (expressed as permeability index), prealbumin, retinol binding protein and multiskin test were evaluated before and after treatment. RESULTS After 2 weeks of treatment, there were significant improvements in simple Crohn's disease activity index, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, permeability index, body mass index, prealbumin, retinol binding protein and multiskin test in the elemental diet group. There were significant improvements in simple Crohn's disease activity index and fat free mass in the corticosteroid group. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that, in the short term, an oral elemental diet is at least as effective as steroids in inducing remission of mild-moderately active Crohn's disease, but it may be more effective in improving the nutritional status of these patients, probably through a more rapid restoration of normal intestinal permeability.