Comparison of the Effectiveness of Lifestyle Modification with Other Treatments on the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in People at High Risk: A Network Meta-Analysis.
Plain language summary
The prevalence of diabetes has been increasing worldwide. The accompanying increase in the prevalence of diabetes-related complications and the occurrence of diabetes are likely to have a substantial impact on healthcare costs. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of lifestyle modifications to other treatments for patients at high risk of type 2 diabetes. The study design is a systemic review of published literature and a network meta-analysis of data from each selected study. Forty-seven interventions were used for the analyses. The results of the meta-analysis highlight the efficacy of lifestyle modification in preventing the onset of type 2 diabetes in high-risk patients in comparison with standard treatment or placebo as well as other treatments. The proportion of patients with onset of type 2 diabetes in the intervention (lifestyle modification) group was approximately twice as low as compared to the control (standard intervention) group. Authors conclude that lifestyle modification is the superior treatment intervention among 12 treatments for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in high-risk individuals.
BACKGROUND Many clinical trials have been conducted to verify the effects of interventions for prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) using different treatments and outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of lifestyle modifications (LM) with other treatments in persons at high risk of T2D by a network meta-analysis (NMA). METHODS Searches were performed of PUBMED up to January 2018 to identify randomized controlled trials. The odds ratio (OR) with onset of T2D at 1 year in the intervention group (LM, dietary, exercise, or medication) versus a control group (standard treatments or placebo) were the effect sizes. Frequentist and Bayesian NMAs were conducted. RESULTS Forty-seven interventions and 12 treatments (20,113 participants) were used for the analyses. The OR in the LM was approximately 0.46 (95% CI: 0.33 to 0.61) times lower compared to the standard intervention by the Bayesian approach. The effects of LM compared to other treatments by indirect comparisons were not significant. CONCLUSIONS This meta-analysis further strengthened the evidence that LM reduces the onset of T2D compared to standard and placebo interventions and appears to be at least as effective as nine other treatments in preventing T2D.
Effects of Mediterranean Diet and Physical Activity on Pulmonary Function: A Cross-Sectional Analysis in the ILERVAS Project.
Plain language summary
The Mediterranean diet is characterised by an abundant consumption of extra-virgin olive oil, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes, a moderate consumption of fish and seafood, poultry, fermented dairy products, and red wine with meals, and low intakes of sweetened beverages, red meat and ready meals. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and physical activity on pulmonary function in a large middle-aged population at low-to-moderate cardiovascular risk. The study is an ongoing study that between 2015 and 2017 enrolled a total of 3020 subjects – women aged between 50 to 70 years and men aged between 45 to 65 years – with the presence of at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Results indicate that a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet was linked with impaired breathing patterns and higher prevalence of abnormal lung function when compared to participants with a higher adherence to this dietary pattern. Additionally, vigorous physical activity was accompanied by better results in lung function than that observed in inactive subjects. The study provides initial clinical evidence about the independent and deleterious effect of both low adherence to the Mediterranean diet and low physical activity practice on lung function in participants without known pulmonary disease.
undefined: A few studies showed that both adherence to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and physical activity practice have a positive impact on pulmonary function in subjects with lung disease. These associations are not well studied in subjects free from lung disease. In a cross-sectional study conducted in 3020 middle-aged subjects free of lung disease, adherence to the MedDiet using the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener, and physical activity practice using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form were recorded. Respiratory function was assessed using forced spirometry and the results were evaluated according to the Global initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the associations between adherence to the MedDiet and physical activity practice with the presence of ventilatory defects. Participants with a high adherence to MedDiet, in comparison to those with low adherence, had both higher forced vital capacity (FVC; 100 (87⁻109) vs. 94 (82⁻105) % of predicted, = 0.003) and forced expired volume in the first second (FEV1; 100 (89⁻112) vs. 93 (80⁻107) % of predicted, < 0.001). According to their degree of physical activity, those subjects with a high adherence also had both higher FVC (100 (88⁻107) vs. 94 (83⁻105) % of predicted, = 0.027) and FEV1 (100 (89⁻110) vs. 95 (84⁻108) % of predicted, = 0.047) in comparison with those with low adherence. The multivariable logistic regression models showed a significant and independent association between both low adherence to MedDiet and low physical activity practice, and the presence of altered pulmonary patterns, with differences between men and women. However, no joint effect between adherence to MedDiet and physical activity practice on respiratory function values was observed. Low adherence to MedDiet and low physical activity practice were independently associated with pulmonary impairment. Therefore, the lung mechanics seem to benefit from heart-healthy lifestyle behaviors.
The Effect of a Diet Moderately High in Protein and Fiber on Insulin Sensitivity Measured Using the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST).
Plain language summary
The protein, fat and carbohydrate composition of diets can modify heart function abnormalities associated with insulin resistance (when cells in the muscles, fat, and liver do not respond well to insulin and cannot easily take up glucose from the blood) and therefore reduce the risk of diabetes. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of a reduced carbohydrate diet that was high in both protein and dietary fibre on insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in overweight and obese women at risk of diabetes, independent of weight loss. The study is a randomised control trial which recruited 89 women at risk of diabetes. The participants were randomly assigned to either a standard diet or a relatively high protein and fibre diet group for a period of 10 weeks. Results indicate that a modest increase in consumption of dietary protein and fibre, without emphasis on energy reduction, improved several cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight women. There were modest reductions in body mass, total body fat and central body fat, without loss of lean mass and improvements in total serum and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Authors conclude that the heart function benefits achieved with moderate increases to fibre and protein, support the use of this dietary approach for overweight individuals at risk of diabetes.
undefined: Evidence shows that weight loss improves insulin sensitivity but few studies have examined the effect of macronutrient composition independently of weight loss on direct measures of insulin sensitivity. We randomised 89 overweight or obese women to either a standard diet (StdD), that was intended to be low in fat and relatively high in carbohydrate ( = 42) or to a relatively high protein (up to 30% of energy), relatively high fibre (>30 g/day) diet (HPHFib) ( = 47) for 10 weeks. Advice regarding strict adherence to energy intake goals was not given. Insulin sensitivity and secretion was assessed by a novel method-the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST). Although there were significant improvements in body composition and most cardiometabolic risk factors on HPHFib, insulin sensitivity was reduced by 19.3% (95% CI: 31.8%, 4.5%; = 0.013) in comparison with StdD. We conclude that the reduction in insulin sensitivity after a diet relatively high in both protein and fibre, despite cardiometabolic improvements, suggests insulin sensitivity may reflect metabolic adaptations to dietary composition for maintenance of glucose homeostasis, rather than impaired metabolism.
Postprandial Glucose Surges after Extremely Low Carbohydrate Diet in Healthy Adults.
The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine. 2017;243(1):35-39
Plain language summary
Carbohydrate-restricted diets are prevalent not only in obese people but also in the general population to maintain appropriate body weight. The aim of the study was to investigate, through continuous glucose monitoring, whether carbohydrate restriction for one day in actual life could affect the subsequent blood glucose levels in healthy subjects. The study enrolled ten healthy volunteers (2 males and 8 females), who had normal haemoglobin A1c, with an age range between 20 years and 65 years. The participants wore a continuous glucose monitoring device and were given isoenergetic test meals for 4 consecutive days. Results show that after extreme restriction of carbohydrate, an influence on the blood glucose variability persisted for at least 24 hours in healthy subjects. The day after the low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet, the glucose fluctuation increased significantly when compared with the fluctuations on days after the ingestion of normal carbohydrate diet. Authors conclude that low carbohydrate/high-fat diets can induce increasing blood glucose fluctuations that last for at least all the following day and have adverse effects in daily life.
undefined: Carbohydrate-restricted diets are prevalent not only in obese people but also in the general population to maintain appropriate body weight. Here, we report that extreme carbohydrate restriction for one day affects the subsequent blood glucose levels in healthy adults. Ten subjects (median age 30.5 years, BMI 21.1 kg/m , and HbA1c 5.5%), wearing with a continuous glucose monitoring device, were given isoenergetic test meals for 4 consecutive days. On day 1, day 2 (D2), and day 4 (D4), they consumed normal-carbohydrate (63-66% carbohydrate) diet, while on day 3, they took low-carbohydrate/high-fat (5% carbohydrate) diet. The daily energy intake was 2,200 kcal for males and 1,700 kcal for females. On D2 and D4, we calculated the mean 24-hr blood glucose level (MEAN/24h) and its standard deviation (SD/24h), the area under the curve (AUC) for glucose over 140 mg/dL within 4 hours after each meal (AUC/4h/140), the mean amplitude of the glycemic excursions (MAGE), the incremental AUC of 24-hr blood glucose level above the mean plus one standard deviation (iAUC/MEAN+SD). Indexes for glucose fluctuation on D4 were significantly greater than those on D2 (SD/24h; p = 0.009, MAGE; p = 0.013, AUC/4h/140 after breakfast and dinner; p = 0.006 and 0.005, and iAUC/MEAN+SD; p = 0.007). The value of MEAN/24h and AUC/4h/140 after lunch on D4 were greater than those on D2, but those differences were not statistically significant. In conclusion, consumption of low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet appears to cause higher postprandial blood glucose on subsequent normal-carbohydrate diet particularly after breakfast and dinner in healthy adults.
Three 15-min bouts of moderate postmeal walking significantly improves 24-h glycemic control in older people at risk for impaired glucose tolerance.
Diabetes care. 2013;36(10):3262-8
Plain language summary
The insulin response is known to decline with age, which puts older people at risk of hyperglycaemia after eating. Insulin and exercise stimulate the uptake of glucose into skeletal muscle so exercise could aid insulin in age-related impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). This small randomised controlled trial (RCT) used a multiple crossover design to compare the effect of exercise timing and frequency on glycaemia control in older people. The ten trial subjects were at risk of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), but were otherwise healthy with an average age of sixty-nine years old. Subjects were housed in whole room calorimeters, fed three standardised meals a day and glucose levels were monitored. Subjects were randomly assigned to walk on a treadmill for either fifteen minutes after each of the three meals, or walk for forty-five minutes either at mid-morning or mid-afternoon. It was found that that both the morning walk and the post-meal walking decreased 24 hour glucose concentration, whilst the afternoon walk had little impact. Post-meal walking was effective at lowering glucose levels after each meal including dinner, where the other exercise protocols were not. The author concluded that the timing of the exercise may be as important, if not more, than volume. Short (15 minute) bouts of post-meal walking could be manageable for older people and appears to be an effective way of controlling post eating hyperglycaemia.
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three 15-min bouts of postmeal walking with 45 min of sustained walking on 24-h glycemic control in older persons at risk for glucose intolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Inactive older (≥60 years of age) participants (N=10) were recruited from the community and were nonsmoking, with a BMI<35 kg/m2 and a fasting blood glucose concentration between 105 and 125 mg dL(-1). Participants completed three randomly ordered exercise protocols spaced 4 weeks apart. Each protocol comprised a 48-h stay in a whole-room calorimeter, with the first day serving as the control day. On the second day, participants engaged in either 1) postmeal walking for 15 min or 45 min of sustained walking performed at 2) 10:30 a.m. or 3) 4:30 p.m. All walking was on a treadmill at an absolute intensity of 3 METs. Interstitial glucose concentrations were determined over 48 h with a continuous glucose monitor. Substrate utilization was measured continuously by respiratory exchange (VCO2/VO2). RESULTS Both sustained morning walking (127±23 vs. 118±14 mg dL(-1)) and postmeal walking (129±24 vs. 116±13 mg dL(-1)) significantly improved 24-h glycemic control relative to the control day (P<0.05). Moreover, postmeal walking was significantly (P<0.01) more effective than 45 min of sustained morning or afternoon walking in lowering 3-h postdinner glucose between the control and experimental day. CONCLUSIONS Short, intermittent bouts of postmeal walking appear to be an effective way to control postprandial hyperglycemia in older people.