Effects of Mediterranean Diet and Physical Activity on Pulmonary Function: A Cross-Sectional Analysis in the ILERVAS Project.
Plain language summary
The Mediterranean diet is characterised by an abundant consumption of extra-virgin olive oil, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes, a moderate consumption of fish and seafood, poultry, fermented dairy products, and red wine with meals, and low intakes of sweetened beverages, red meat and ready meals. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and physical activity on pulmonary function in a large middle-aged population at low-to-moderate cardiovascular risk. The study is an ongoing study that between 2015 and 2017 enrolled a total of 3020 subjects – women aged between 50 to 70 years and men aged between 45 to 65 years – with the presence of at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Results indicate that a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet was linked with impaired breathing patterns and higher prevalence of abnormal lung function when compared to participants with a higher adherence to this dietary pattern. Additionally, vigorous physical activity was accompanied by better results in lung function than that observed in inactive subjects. The study provides initial clinical evidence about the independent and deleterious effect of both low adherence to the Mediterranean diet and low physical activity practice on lung function in participants without known pulmonary disease.
undefined: A few studies showed that both adherence to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and physical activity practice have a positive impact on pulmonary function in subjects with lung disease. These associations are not well studied in subjects free from lung disease. In a cross-sectional study conducted in 3020 middle-aged subjects free of lung disease, adherence to the MedDiet using the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener, and physical activity practice using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form were recorded. Respiratory function was assessed using forced spirometry and the results were evaluated according to the Global initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the associations between adherence to the MedDiet and physical activity practice with the presence of ventilatory defects. Participants with a high adherence to MedDiet, in comparison to those with low adherence, had both higher forced vital capacity (FVC; 100 (87⁻109) vs. 94 (82⁻105) % of predicted, = 0.003) and forced expired volume in the first second (FEV1; 100 (89⁻112) vs. 93 (80⁻107) % of predicted, < 0.001). According to their degree of physical activity, those subjects with a high adherence also had both higher FVC (100 (88⁻107) vs. 94 (83⁻105) % of predicted, = 0.027) and FEV1 (100 (89⁻110) vs. 95 (84⁻108) % of predicted, = 0.047) in comparison with those with low adherence. The multivariable logistic regression models showed a significant and independent association between both low adherence to MedDiet and low physical activity practice, and the presence of altered pulmonary patterns, with differences between men and women. However, no joint effect between adherence to MedDiet and physical activity practice on respiratory function values was observed. Low adherence to MedDiet and low physical activity practice were independently associated with pulmonary impairment. Therefore, the lung mechanics seem to benefit from heart-healthy lifestyle behaviors.
Time and Intervention Effects of Daily Almond Intake on the Changes of Lipid Profile and Body Composition Among Free-Living Healthy Adults.
Journal of medicinal food. 2018;21(4):340-347
Plain language summary
Existing evidence shows that tree nut intake may reduce risk factors associated cardiovascular diseases. While studies have demonstrated this with almond consumption, the mechanism remains uncertain. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of daily almond consumption on changes in body composition and lipid profiles at four different measurement points to provide further mechanistic insight. Eighty-five participants were randomised to either almond or control group and those in the almond group consumed 56g of almonds per day for 20 weeks. Anthropometric and bioimpedance measures were taken, as well as blood lipid profiles, at weeks 0, 8, 16 and 20. This study revealed patterns in blood lipid profiles fluctuations throughout the 20 weeks by utilising four time points. Continuous almond consumption led to significantly greater reductions in blood lipid levels compared to the control group, demonstrating the cardioprotective effects of almonds.
Favorable health benefits of almond have been shown in several previous studies. However, repeated measures, randomized, controlled trials to investigate the changes due to almond intake based on the time effects have not yet been reported. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effects of daily almond intake on changes in body composition and lipid profiles for 20 weeks with four measurements among healthy adults. Participants in the almond group showed favorable changes on blood lipid profiles, including levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL-C) after consuming 56 g of almond per day for 20 weeks compared with those at baseline. At week 20, subjects in the almond group showed significantly decreased TC, LDL-C, non-HDL-C, TG, body fat mass, and waist-hip ratio compared with those of the control group who consumed isocaloric control food. The mixed model also confirmed that there were significant time effects in several bioimpedance indicators (i.e., total body protein, fat-free mass, etc.) and all of the lipid profile parameters in the almond group. These results confirm the effects of lipid-lowering and modifying body composition of almond consumption. In addition, our results suggest that the measuring time points would be critical to capture the effects of dietary intervention.
Effect of probiotics on lipid profiles and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis of RCTs.
Plain language summary
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common metabolic disorder worldwide. Though many clinical studies have explored the effects of probiotics on T2DM they have concluded mixed results. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate all current randomised controlled trials and determine the effect of probiotics on lipid profiles and blood pressure in patients with T2DM. According to the existing literature, probiotic supplementation for patients with T2DM has a positive effect by lowering total cholesterol and increasing high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). While these beneficial effects on lipid profiles and blood pressure have been found, the authors conclude there is still a need for a multi-centre, longitudinal study to better understand the effects of probiotics on patients with T2DM.
BACKGROUND This meta-analysis aimed to systematically evaluate the effects of probiotics on blood lipid and blood pressure among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) based on the randomized controlled studies. METHODS PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP database were searched by the index words to identify the qualified randomized control trial. The latest research was done in the January 2017. Mean difference (MD) along with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to analyze the included outcomes. RESULTS Ten trials were included at last with 297 patients in the treatment group and 294 patients in the control group. Probiotics significantly decreased the value of total cholesterol (SMD -0.57, 95% CI -0.92 to 0.21), triglyceride (SMD -0.66, 95% CI -0.93 to 0.39), low-density lipoprotein (SMD -0.40, 95% CI -0.79 to 0.01), systolic blood pressure (WMD -5.04, 95% CI -8.8 to 1.20), diastolic blood pressure (SMD -0.39, 95% CI -0.62 to 0.17), fasting blood glucose (FBG) (SMD 3.54, 95% CI 1.94-5.15) compared with the placebo treatment. Apart from this, probiotics could significantly improve the value of high-density lipoprotein (SMD 0.38, 95% CI 0.03-0.73). CONCLUSION Probiotics may decrease the indexes of lipid profile, blood pressure, and FBG in patients with T2DM; application of probiotics might be a new method for lipid profiles and blood pressure management in T2DM.
Low-glycaemic index diets in the management of blood lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Family practice. 2013;30(5):485-91
Plain language summary
Dietary glycaemic index (GI) is a measure of the body’s response to digesting carbohydrates. Foods with a high GI score result in a rapid spike in blood glucose and insulin levels, and increased plasma-free fatty acids. These spikes may have a direct impact on cardiovascular health. The aim of this review was to examine the effectiveness of low-GI diets in the management of blood lipids. Proposed mechanisms of high-GI diets impacting cardiovascular health include increasing reactive oxygen species, potentiating endothelial dysfunction and promoting vascular inflammation. The meta-analysis showed that low-GI diets have a significant effect on lowering total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in 5-12 weeks. Based on this study, the authors’ conclusions suggest that a low-GI diet may positively impact the lipid profile, however, a large randomised controlled trial is needed on the effects of low-GI diets on blood lipids.
BACKGROUND Dietary glycaemic index (GI) is a measure of the postprandial glycaemic response to carbohydrates. Observational studies have found increased triglycerides and decreased high-density lipoprotein levels in patients consuming higher GI foods. OBJECTIVE Our aim was to review and synthesize the evidence on the effect of low-glucose index diets on serum lipid levels. METHODS We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the effect of low-GI diets on serum lipid levels. We searched PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library for published, English-language, randomized controlled trials comparing low-GI and high-GI diets for the management of blood lipids in the general population with at least 4 weeks of follow-up. We conducted a meta-analysis assuming a random effects model. RESULTS Four studies met the criteria for inclusion in the systematic review and meta-analysis. The individual studies did not always show a significant effect of a low-GI diet on serum lipids; however, when combined in a meta-analysis, low-GI diets were shown to have a significant effect on decreasing total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol over a short time span (5-12 weeks). There was no significant effect on high-density lipoprotein or triglyceride levels. The forest plots for total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol did not show significant statistical heterogeneity (I (2) = 0%). CONCLUSION This meta-analysis suggests that a low-GI diet may help lower total and LDL cholesterol. The generalizability of these findings is likely limited by heterogeneity in individual study definitions of low- or high-GI diets.
Long-chain n-3 PUFAs reduce adipose tissue and systemic inflammation in severely obese nondiabetic patients: a randomized controlled trial.
The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2012;96(5):1137-49
Plain language summary
Adipose tissue inflammation is the basis of obesity-related systemic inflammation, which predisposes patients to the development of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Previous studies show that long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) reduce cardiovascular events and exert anti-inflammatory effects but their effects on human adipose tissue inflammation have so far been unknown. This randomized open-label controlled clinical trial evaluated the effect of an 8-week treatment with n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on adipose tissue and systemic inflammation and on metabolic control. Fifty-five severely obese non-diabetic patients, scheduled for bariatric surgery, were allocated to receive either n-3 PUFAs (n=27) or an equivalent amount of butterfat as control (n=28). Systemic inflammatory markers and metabolic variables were measured at baseline and at the end of the intervention before the participants underwent bariatric surgery. Adipose tissue samples were collected during surgery for the assessment of inflammatory gene expression and lipid mediator production. Treatment with n-3 PUFAs for 8 weeks favourably affected adipose tissue and systemic inflammation. In adipose tissue, the expression of most inflammatory genes was reduced and the concentrations of lipid mediators, responsible for the resolution of inflammation (resolving lipid mediators), were increased. Systemically, the results showed a shift to a more anti-inflammatory plasma fatty acid profile and a decrease in circulating triglyceride levels. The authors concluded that the observed beneficial effects of n-3 PUFAs may be useful in the long-term treatment of obesity.
BACKGROUND Chronic adipose tissue inflammation is a hallmark of obesity, triggering the development of associated pathologies, particularly type 2 diabetes. Long-chain n-3 PUFAs reduce cardiovascular events and exert well-established antiinflammatory effects, but their effects on human adipose tissue inflammation are unknown. OBJECTIVE We investigated whether n-3 PUFAs reduce adipose tissue inflammation in severely obese nondiabetic patients. DESIGN We treated 55 severely obese nondiabetic patients, scheduled to undergo elective bariatric surgery, with 3.36 g long-chain n-3 PUFAs/d (EPA, DHA) or an equivalent amount of butterfat as control, for 8 wk, in a randomized open-label controlled clinical trial. The primary efficacy measure was inflammatory gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples (subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue), collected during surgery after the intervention. Secondary efficacy variables were adipose tissue production of antiinflammatory n-3 PUFA-derived eicosanoids, plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers, metabolic control, and the effect of the Pro12Ala PPARG polymorphism on the treatment response. RESULTS Treatment with n-3 PUFAs, which was well tolerated, decreased the gene expression of most analyzed inflammatory genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (P < 0.05) and increased production of antiinflammatory eicosanoids in visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue (P < 0.05). In comparison with control subjects who received butterfat, circulating interleukin-6 and triglyceride concentrations decreased significantly in the n-3 PUFA group (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03, respectively). The Pro12Ala polymorphism affected the serum cholesterol response to n-3 PUFA treatment. CONCLUSIONS Treatment with long-chain n-3 PUFAs favorably modulated adipose tissue and systemic inflammation in severely obese nondiabetic patients and improved lipid metabolism. These effects may be beneficial in the long-term treatment of obesity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00760760.
Partial purification and characterization of extrinsic pathway inhibitor (the factor Xa-dependent plasma inhibitor of factor VIIa/tissue factor).
Thrombosis research. 1987;48(1):11-22
Plain language summary
Green tea (GT) consumption has been associated with the prevention and control of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular and metabolic disease as well as having a positive effect on body weight and composition. However, the polyphenols in GT have been shown to interact with mineral distribution within the body and those minerals have been shown to be deficient in obesity. Studies to measure mineral status in obese subjects supplementing with GT have been inconclusive and this study aimed to measure the serum concentrations of minerals (calcium, copper, iron, zinc, magnesium), body mass index, total antioxidant status (TAS), lipid profile and glucose concentration. 46 obese patients were randomised into 2 groups, one group were supplemented with 279mg of green tea extract (GTE) and 208mg of the polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and the other group were issued with a placebo for 3 months. The study concluded that GTE improved Zn and Mg, however decreased levels of FE. The results confirmed a positive effect on body mass, lipid profile, glucose and TAS. It was concluded that more studies are required on a larger population over a longer period of time.
We report a procedure to purify partially from plasma (approximately 1200 fold) the factor Xa-dependent inhibitor of factor VIIa/tissue factor (i.e., the extrinsic pathway inhibitor or EPI) and describe some of its properties. An assay for EPI was developed based upon inhibition of factor VIIa/tissue factor induced release of activation peptide from tritiated factor IX by a test sample in the presence but not in the absence of factor Xa. Approximately 50% of the total EPI activity in plasma was found in the lipoprotein fraction, which was used as the starting material for purification. Total lipoproteins (isolated by density ultracentrifugation) were delipidated and the urea soluble apoproteins gel filtered on Sephacryl S-200. The inhibitory activity co-eluted with the major protein peak, which primarily contained apoprotein A-I. Inhibitory activity was separated from apoprotein A-I by anion-exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and was further resolved from higher and lower molecular weight contaminating proteins by polypreparative disc gel electrophoresis in the presence of 0.1% SDS. Functional inhibitory activity eluted from the polypreparative disc gel in two discrete pools of different molecular weights (approximately 34,000 and approximately 43,000 D). Apoprotein E was identified by immunological techniques as the major protein present in both of these pools. However, incubation with a monospecific polyclonal antibody to human apoprotein E did not decrease EPI activity either in plasma or in the partially purified polypreparative disc gel fractions. A rabbit antiserum was prepared against material from the polypreparative disc gel. The IgG fraction neutralized approximately 95% of the total inhibitory activity present in plasma. Therefore, EPI in the lipoprotein fraction and in the non-lipoprotein fraction of plasma appears to be antigenically similar.