Effects of personalized diets by prediction of glycemic responses on glycemic control and metabolic health in newly diagnosed T2DM: a randomized dietary intervention pilot trial.
BMC medicine. 2022;20(1):56
Plain language summary
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects around 10% of the global population. The primary goal in its management is to improve glycemic control. Modifying the diet can help, but many patients fail to achieve improvements with diet alone. The aim of the randomized dietary intervention pilot trial is to evaluate the effects of a personalized postprandial-targeting (PPT) diet on glycemic control and metabolic health in 23 adults with newly diagnosed T2DM, as compared to the commonly recommended Mediterranean-style (MED) diet. The PPT diet led to significant lower levels of continuous-glucose-monitoring (CGM)-based measures as compared to the MED diet. In the additional 6-months intervention, metabolic parameters were further improved and 61% of the participants exhibited diabetes remission. Improvements in clinical outcomes were also accompanied by changes in the gut microbiome. These findings may be useful for the design of larger studies in the future that may have implications for dietary advice in clinical practice.
BACKGROUND Dietary modifications are crucial for managing newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and preventing its health complications, but many patients fail to achieve clinical goals with diet alone. We sought to evaluate the clinical effects of a personalized postprandial-targeting (PPT) diet on glycemic control and metabolic health in individuals with newly diagnosed T2DM as compared to the commonly recommended Mediterranean-style (MED) diet. METHODS We enrolled 23 adults with newly diagnosed T2DM (aged 53.5 ± 8.9 years, 48% males) for a randomized crossover trial of two 2-week-long dietary interventions. Participants were blinded to their assignment to one of the two sequence groups: either PPT-MED or MED-PPT diets. The PPT diet relies on a machine learning algorithm that integrates clinical and microbiome features to predict personal postprandial glucose responses (PPGR). We further evaluated the long-term effects of PPT diet on glycemic control and metabolic health by an additional 6-month PPT intervention (n = 16). Participants were connected to continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) throughout the study and self-recorded dietary intake using a smartphone application. RESULTS In the crossover intervention, the PPT diet lead to significant lower levels of CGM-based measures as compared to the MED diet, including average PPGR (mean difference between diets, - 19.8 ± 16.3 mg/dl × h, p < 0.001), mean glucose (mean difference between diets, - 7.8 ± 5.5 mg/dl, p < 0.001), and daily time of glucose levels > 140 mg/dl (mean difference between diets, - 2.42 ± 1.7 h/day, p < 0.001). Blood fructosamine also decreased significantly more during PPT compared to MED intervention (mean change difference between diets, - 16.4 ± 37 μmol/dl, p < 0.0001). At the end of 6 months, the PPT intervention leads to significant improvements in multiple metabolic health parameters, among them HbA1c (mean ± SD, - 0.39 ± 0.48%, p < 0.001), fasting glucose (- 16.4 ± 24.2 mg/dl, p = 0.02) and triglycerides (- 49 ± 46 mg/dl, p < 0.001). Importantly, 61% of the participants exhibited diabetes remission, as measured by HbA1c < 6.5%. Finally, some clinical improvements were significantly associated with gut microbiome changes per person. CONCLUSION In this crossover trial in subjects with newly diagnosed T2DM, a PPT diet improved CGM-based glycemic measures significantly more than a Mediterranean-style MED diet. Additional 6-month PPT intervention further improved glycemic control and metabolic health parameters, supporting the clinical efficacy of this approach. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01892956.
Diets for weight management in adults with type 2 diabetes: an umbrella review of published meta-analyses and systematic review of trials of diets for diabetes remission.
Plain language summary
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a global epidemic. Although it is a complex disease, it is mainly driven by weight gain. The benefits of weight loss for T2D are well known, but patients and healthcare practitioners do not have clear guidance as to which dietary strategies may be effective to achieve and to maintain weight loss. The aim of this study is to review a number of studies of weight loss diets in T2D patients to see which ones are the most effective. Also, to see which dietary patterns support type 2 diabetes remission. Greatest weight loss was reported with very low energy diets including formula meal replacements. Low-carbohydrate diets were no better for weight loss than higher-carbohydrate/low-fat diets. High-protein, Mediterranean, high-monounsaturated-fatty-acid, vegetarian and low-glycaemic-index diets all achieved minimal or no difference from control diets. Diets for weight management in people with type 2 diabetes do not support any particular macronutrient profile or style over others. Very low energy diets and formula meal replacements appear to be the most effective. Programmes including a hypocaloric formula ‘total diet replacement’ induction phase were most effective for type 2 diabetes remission. Further research is needed to assess longer-term impacts on weight, glycaemic control, clinical outcomes and diabetes complications.
Conflicts of interest:
A: Meta-analyses, position-stands, randomized-controlled trials (RCTs)
B: Systematic reviews including RCTs of limited number
C: Non-randomized trials, observational studies, narrative reviews
D: Case-reports, evidence-based clinical findings
E: Opinion piece, other
- 19 meta-analyses (MA) on weight-loss diets, involving 23 primary trials were assessed using A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) 2. Findings were synthesised by diet type and study quality (Cochrane Risk of Bias tool 2.0 and Risk Of Bias In Non-randomised Studies – of Interventions [ROBINS-I]) with GRADE applied
- Weight loss diets in the review included: Formula meal replacements (high quality, GRADE moderate) achieved 2.4 kg (95% CI −3.3, −1.4) greater weight loss over 12–52 weeks. Low-carbohydrate diets were no better for weight loss than higher-carbohydrate/low-fat diets (high quality, GRADE high). High-protein, Mediterranean, high-monounsaturated-fatty-acid, vegetarian and low-glycaemic-index diets all achieved minimal (0.3– 2 kg) or no difference from control diets (low to critically low quality, GRADE very low/moderate)
- Greatest weight loss was reported with very low energy diets (VLED), (400–500 kcal). However, this study found that low-carbohydrate diets (LCD) (21–70g of carbohydrate daily from1000–1500 kcal) were no better for weight loss than higher-carbohydrate/low-fat diets
- Time period of diets / length of observation / intervention: (1) Formula meal replacements (>12–52 wk), (2) LCDs ranged between (>8 wk to 4 years), (3) Very low energy diets (>8–12 wk), (4) High- protein (>4->8 wks), Mediterranean (>4->8 wk), high-monounsaturated-fatty-acid (>2wk), vegetarian (≥3wk) and low-glycaemic-index diets (≥6mo)
- Authors highlight weight reduction is fundamental for T2D management and remission
- This MA found that VLED and formula meal replacement appear the most effective approaches for weight management with T2D by providing less energy than self-administered food-based diets
- Potential pathophysiological mechanisms highlighted by authors are HbA1c reduction and remission which appear to be from weight loss, with only small differences between diet types assessed over 3–12 months, irrespective of diet type
- Study limitations: Many meta-analyses were of ‘low’ and ‘critically low’ AMSTAR 2 quality, predominantly through ‘no protocol reported’ (despite clear and sound methods) and no assessment of publication bias
- Most studies included European participants, such that findings may not be equally applicable to other ethnic and/or deprived communities. Durations of interventions varied, where weight regain is frequent over a longer period. Authors highlight evidence from clinical practice is needed to identify safe and effective approaches to achieve and maintain weight loss
- Authors highlight primary studies should use an RCT design, with data analyses conducted ‘blind’. They should define the intervention clearly (e.g., diets, physical activity, and behavioural and psychological support), and address separately the induction (usually 3–6 months) and maintenance (≥12 months)
- This research received no funding
- The authors declared no conflicts of interest.
Clinical practice applications:
- While this study found a variety of dietary compositions can be used effectively for weight management with T2D, VLED was successfully used to achieve remission for T2D
- Programmes with a ’total diet replacement’ induction phase were the most effective dietary approach for T2D remission (up to 61% of participants at 1 year).
Considerations for future research:
- Authors state future research should provide implementation with optimal support in real-life settings for weight loss, prevention of weight regain and remissions, rather than seek subtle differences from macronutrient compositions
- Future studies should report sufficient detail about macronutrient or micronutrient contents, or prescribed and reported energy intakes, including energy intake of nutrient-restricted diets.
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Weight reduction is fundamental for type 2 diabetes management and remission, but uncertainty exists over which diet type is best to achieve and maintain weight loss. We evaluated dietary approaches for weight loss, and remission, in people with type 2 diabetes to inform practice and clinical guidelines. METHODS First, we conducted a systematic review of published meta-analyses of RCTs of weight-loss diets. We searched MEDLINE (Ovid), PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, up to 7 May 2021. We synthesised weight loss findings stratified by diet types and assessed meta-analyses quality with A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) 2. We assessed certainty of pooled results of each meta-analysis using Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) (PROSPERO CRD42020169258). Second, we conducted a systematic review of any intervention studies reporting type 2 diabetes remission with weight-loss diets, in MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, up to 10 May 2021. Findings were synthesised by diet type and study quality (Cochrane Risk of Bias tool 2.0 and Risk Of Bias In Non-randomised Studies - of Interventions [ROBINS-I]), with GRADE applied (PROSPERO CRD42020208878). RESULTS We identified 19 meta-analyses of weight-loss diets, involving 2-23 primary trials (n = 100-1587), published 2013-2021. Twelve were 'critically low' or 'low' AMSTAR 2 quality, with seven 'high' quality. Greatest weight loss was reported with very low energy diets, 1.7-2.1 MJ/day (400-500 kcal) for 8-12 weeks (high-quality meta-analysis, GRADE low), achieving 6.6 kg (95% CI -9.5, -3.7) greater weight loss than low-energy diets (4.2-6.3 MJ/day [1000-1500 kcal]). Formula meal replacements (high quality, GRADE moderate) achieved 2.4 kg (95% CI -3.3, -1.4) greater weight loss over 12-52 weeks. Low-carbohydrate diets were no better for weight loss than higher-carbohydrate/low-fat diets (high quality, GRADE high). High-protein, Mediterranean, high-monounsaturated-fatty-acid, vegetarian and low-glycaemic-index diets all achieved minimal (0.3-2 kg) or no difference from control diets (low to critically low quality, GRADE very low/moderate). For type 2 diabetes remission, of 373 records, 16 met inclusion criteria. Remissions at 1 year were reported for a median 54% of participants in RCTs including initial low-energy total diet replacement (low-risk-of-bias study, GRADE high), and 11% and 15% for meal replacements and Mediterranean diets, respectively (some concerns for risk of bias in studies, GRADE moderate/low). For ketogenic/very low-carbohydrate and very low-energy food-based diets, the evidence for remission (20% and 22%, respectively) has serious and critical risk of bias, and GRADE certainty is very low. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION Published meta-analyses of hypocaloric diets for weight management in people with type 2 diabetes do not support any particular macronutrient profile or style over others. Very low energy diets and formula meal replacement appear the most effective approaches, generally providing less energy than self-administered food-based diets. Programmes including a hypocaloric formula 'total diet replacement' induction phase were most effective for type 2 diabetes remission. Most of the evidence is restricted to 1 year or less. Well-conducted research is needed to assess longer-term impacts on weight, glycaemic control, clinical outcomes and diabetes complications.
Food and mood: how do diet and nutrition affect mental wellbeing?
This article provides the reader with an extensive analysis of the connection between poor nutrition and low mood, and offers insightful cues in regards to the impact of healthier diets on mental health. The Mediterranean diet, with its high consumption of vegetables, fruits, nuts, and legumes; moderate consumption of poultry, eggs, and dairy products; and only occasional consumption of red meat—is associated with a reduced risk of depression. Moreover, the relationship between food and mood can be altered by the effect that specific foods have on blood sugar levels, immune activation, and the gut microbiome. Inflammatory markers are elevated in people that follow diets which are high in calories and saturated fats and this seems to appear as one of the mechanisms through which the Western diet can dramatically impact brain health.
Effectiveness of a Multicomponent Intervention in Primary Care That Addresses Patients with Diabetes Mellitus with Two or More Unhealthy Habits, Such as Diet, Physical Activity or Smoking: Multicenter Randomized Cluster Trial (EIRA Study).
International journal of environmental research and public health. 2021;18(11)
Plain language summary
Life habits such as smoking, physical activity, and diet affect glycaemic control. The objective of this multicentre randomised cluster trial (EIRA study) was to evaluate the effectiveness of multicomponent educational interventions on glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetic patients. Interventions in multicomponent individual, group and community settings included smoking cessation, the Mediterranean diet and physical activity, as well as an assessment of the quality of life. Participants had unhealthy lifestyles prior to the intervention. The study was conducted in 26 primary healthcare centres in seven health departments in Spain over a period of 12 months. A brief intervention aimed to change the habits of the participants, including increasing physical activity, quitting smoking and adhering to the Mediterranean diet. After 12 months of intervention, there were no statistically significant improvements in glycaemic control, physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, or quality of life. However, adherence to the Mediterranean diet was statistically significant. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of multicomponent interventions in improving glycaemic control. The clinical applicability of multicomponent interventions to tackle type 2 diabetes, obesity, and unhealthy lifestyles should be considered by healthcare providers.
Introduction: We evaluated the effectiveness of an individual, group and community intervention to improve the glycemic control of patients with diabetes mellitus aged 45-75 years with two or three unhealthy life habits. As secondary endpoints, we evaluated the inverventions' effectiveness on adhering to Mediterranean diet, physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, smoking and quality of life. Method: A randomized clinical cluster (health centers) trial with two parallel groups in Spain from January 2016 to December 2019 was used. Patients with diabetes mellitus aged 45-75 years with two unhealthy life habits or more (smoking, not adhering to Mediterranean diet or little physical activity) participated. Centers were randomly assigned. The sample size was estimated to be 420 people for the main outcome variable. Educational intervention was done to improve adherence to Mediterranean diet, physical activity and smoking cessation by individual, group and community interventions for 12 months. Controls received the usual health care. The outcome variables were: HbA1c (main), the Mediterranean diet adherence score (MEDAS), the international diet quality index (DQI-I), the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ), sedentary lifestyle, smoking ≥1 cigarette/day and the EuroQuol questionnaire (EVA-EuroQol5D5L). Results: In total, 13 control centers (n = 356) and 12 intervention centers (n = 338) were included with similar baseline conditions. An analysis for intention-to-treat was done by applying multilevel mixed models fitted by basal values and the health center: the HbA1c adjusted mean difference = -0.09 (95% CI: -0.29-0.10), the DQI-I adjusted mean difference = 0.25 (95% CI: -0.32-0.82), the MEDAS adjusted mean difference = 0.45 (95% CI: 0.01-0.89), moderate/high physical activity OR = 1.09 (95% CI: 0.64-1.86), not living a sedentary lifestyle OR = 0.97 (95% CI: 0.55-1.73), no smoking OR = 0.61 (95% CI: 0.54-1.06), EVA adjusted mean difference = -1.26 (95% CI: -4.98-2.45). Conclusions: No statistically significant changes were found for either glycemic control or physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, smoking and quality of life. The multicomponent individual, group and community interventions only showed a statistically significant improvement in adhering to Mediterranean diet. Such innovative interventions need further research to demonstrate their effectiveness in patients with poor glycemic control.
Associations of Dietary Intake on Biological Markers of Inflammation in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review.
Plain language summary
Inflammation is the normal physiological response to injury in the body and is designed to protect the host. However, in children and adolescents, chronic low-grade inflammation has been linked to a wide range of conditions. Certain markers in the blood can be measured and used to determine levels of inflammation in the body. This review of 53 studies provides the first evidence for the association between dietary intake and biological markers of inflammation in children and adolescents. Results show that adhering to a healthy way of eating such as the Mediterranean diet, are associated with decreased levels of pro-inflammatory biomarkers. The Western Dietary pattern, as well as intake of ultra-processed foods is associated with higher levels of the same pro-inflammatory markers. A good quality diet, high in fruit and vegetables, wholegrains, fibre and healthy fats ameliorates low-grade inflammation, and therefore represents a potential therapeutic approach. It is also an important element for disease prevention in both children and adolescents.
BACKGROUND In children and adolescents, chronic low-grade inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of co- and multi-morbid conditions to mental health disorders. Diet quality is a potential mechanism of action that can exacerbate or ameliorate low-grade inflammation; however, the exact way dietary intake can regulate the immune response in children and adolescents is still to be fully understood. METHODS Studies that measured dietary intake (patterns of diet, indices, food groups, nutrients) and any inflammatory biomarkers in children and adolescents aged 2 to19 years and published until November 2020 were included in this systematic review, and were selected in line with PRISMA guidelines through the following databases: Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Global Health, Medline COMPLETE and Web of Science-Core Collection. A total of 53 articles were identified. RESULTS Results show that adequate adherence to healthful dietary patterns such as the Mediterranean diet, or food groups such as vegetables and fruit, or macro/micro nutrients such as fibre or vitamin C and E, are associated with decreased levels of pro-inflammatory biomarkers, mainly c-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), whereas adherence to a Western dietary pattern, as well as intake of food groups such as added sugars, macro-nutrients such as saturated fatty acids or ultra-processed foods, is associated with higher levels of the same pro-inflammatory biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS This is the first systematic review examining dietary intake and biological markers of inflammation in both children and adolescents. A good quality diet, high in vegetable and fruit intake, wholegrains, fibre and healthy fats ameliorates low-grade inflammation, and therefore represents a promising therapeutic approach, as well as an important element for disease prevention in both children and adolescents.
Augmenting Clinical Interventions in Psychiatric Disorders: Systematic Review and Update on Nutrition.
Frontiers in psychiatry. 2021;12:565583
Plain language summary
Mental disorders are widespread and impact significantly on health. “Nutritional psychiatry” pivots on the impact of nutrition (food) on the state of mind and mood. The aim of this study was to justify the inclusion and recognition of nutrition in the management of psychiatric illnesses. This study is a systemic review which included 97 studies. The literature shows that several foods and food compounds modulate biomarkers and molecular mechanisms involved in the aetiogenesis [the origin and development of a pathological condition] of several mental disorders. Furthermore, the evidence-based approach warrants the inclusion and co-recognition of nutrition in the management of psychiatric illnesses. Authors conclude that there is a need to advocate for policies aimed at bridging the knowledge gap and encourage the utilization and integration of nutrition in addition to contemporary therapies in clinical settings.
There is a strong relationship between a healthy diet and mental well-being. Several foods and food compounds are known to modulate biomarkers and molecular mechanisms involved in the aetiogenesis of several mental disorders, and this can be useful in containing the disease progression, including its prophylaxis. This is an updated systematic review of the literature to justify the inclusion and recognition of nutrition in the management of psychiatric illnesses. Such foods and their compounds include dietary flavanols from fruits and vegetables, notable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents, probiotics (fermented foods) known to protect good gut bacteria, foods rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g., Omega-3), and avoiding diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars among others. While the exact mechanism(s) of mitigation of many nutritional interventions are yet to be fully understood, the evidence-based approach warrants the inclusion and co-recognition of nutrition in the management of psychiatric illnesses. For the greater public health benefit, there is a need for policy advocacy aimed at bridging the knowledge gap and encouraging the integration of nutritional intervention with contemporary therapies in clinical settings, as deficiencies of certain nutrients make therapy difficult even with appropriate medication.
Nutritional Interventions to Improve Asthma-Related Outcomes through Immunomodulation: A Systematic Review.
Plain language summary
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, with the infiltration of immune cells into the airways leading to localized inflammation and asthmatic symptoms. This review sought to establish whether nutritional interventions can help improve asthma and if this happens via regulation of the immune system. 28 studies were included that investigated the impact on both asthma and immunological parameters. The interventions include herbs (Nigella sativa, Crocus sativa, Boswellia serrata gum, Aegle marmelos), supplements (Vitamin E, soy isoflavones, tomato extract), weight loss and reduced-calorie diets, Vitamin D3, omega-3 fatty acids and whole-food approaches such as the Mediterranean diet. Half of the studies reported improvements in either asthma symptoms or immunological parameters. Two studies showed worsening. The herbal mixtures had the most consistent impact in both areas, followed by omega-3 fatty acids. Of interest here was that low to moderate dosages seemingly obtained wider-ranging improvements than higher dosages. The least evidence was found for vitamin D in the studies included. Overall only a couple of studies showed clinically relevant improvements and the authors insist that more research is needed before further nutritional interventions can be included in guidelines for asthma management. According to this review, the evidence for nutritional evidence for asthma management is still limited, in particular for those interventions where symptoms improvements correlate with beneficial immunological changes.
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, characterized by T-helper (Th) 2 inflammation. Current lifestyle recommendations for asthma patients are to consume a diet high in fruits and vegetables and to maintain a healthy weight. This raises the question of whether other nutritional interventions may also improve asthma-related outcomes and whether these changes occur via immunomodulation. Therefore, we systematically reviewed studies that reported both asthma-related outcomes as well as immunological parameters and searched for relations between these two domains. A systematic search identified 808 studies, of which 28 studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies were divided over six nutritional clusters: herbs, herbal mixtures and extracts (N = 6); supplements (N = 4); weight loss (N = 3); vitamin D3 (N = 5); omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) (N = 5); and whole-food approaches (N = 5). Fifteen studies reported improvements in either asthma-related outcomes or immunological parameters, of which eight studies reported simultaneous improvements in both domains. Two studies reported worsening in either asthma-related outcomes or immunological parameters, of which one study reported a worsening in both domains. Promising interventions used herbs, herbal mixtures or extracts, and omega-3 LCPUFAs, although limited interventions resulted in clinically relevant results. Future studies should focus on further optimizing the beneficial effects of nutritional interventions in asthma patients, e.g., by considering the phenotypes and endotypes of asthma.
COVID-19: The Inflammation Link and the Role of Nutrition in Potential Mitigation.
Plain language summary
By May 2020, the novel coronoavirus COVID-19 had infected over 4 million people worldwide. Spread through droplet, it gains entry to body cells through ACE2 cell receptors, causing viral infection-related inflammation, and predominantly infects the lower respiratory tract. Those with non-communicable diseases with COVID-19 experience increased inflammation and have a higher risk of adverse outcomes and mortality. This review article gives details of the mechanisms involved in a cytokine storm (an uncontrolled inflammatory response) and current treatment options, before discussing the immune-balancing and anti-inflammatory potential of healthy nutrition in reducing susceptibility to developing infections. Nutrition Practitioners looking to support the immunity and inflammation of their clients will find the summary research presented in relation to dietary strategies, different food groups and nutrients a useful basis for further study.
The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has engulfed the world, affecting more than 180 countries. As a result, there has been considerable economic distress globally and a significant loss of life. Sadly, the vulnerable and immunocompromised in our societies seem to be more susceptible to severe COVID-19 complications. Global public health bodies and governments have ignited strategies and issued advisories on various handwashing and hygiene guidelines, social distancing strategies, and, in the most extreme cases, some countries have adopted "stay in place" or lockdown protocols to prevent COVID-19 spread. Notably, there are several significant risk factors for severe COVID-19 infection. These include the presence of poor nutritional status and pre-existing noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as diabetes mellitus, chronic lung diseases, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), obesity, and various other diseases that render the patient immunocompromised. These diseases are characterized by systemic inflammation, which may be a common feature of these NCDs, affecting patient outcomes against COVID-19. In this review, we discuss some of the anti-inflammatory therapies that are currently under investigation intended to dampen the cytokine storm of severe COVID-19 infections. Furthermore, nutritional status and the role of diet and lifestyle is considered, as it is known to affect patient outcomes in other severe infections and may play a role in COVID-19 infection. This review speculates the importance of nutrition as a mitigation strategy to support immune function amid the COVID-19 pandemic, identifying food groups and key nutrients of importance that may affect the outcomes of respiratory infections.
Mediterranean diet intervention in overweight and obese subjects lowers plasma cholesterol and causes changes in the gut microbiome and metabolome independently of energy intake.
Plain language summary
Evidence suggests that the Mediterranean diet (MD) may help prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, this could be influenced by an individual’s gut microbiome, highlighting a need for personalised nutrition practices. This randomised crossover control trial aimed to evaluate an 8-week personalised MD intervention in 82 overweight and obese subjects, who were at high risk of cardiovascular disease. The results showed that a personalised MD lowered cholesterol, regardless of the amount of energy consumed and the amount of exercise performed and relied upon adherence to the MD. Gut microbiome composition was altered by a MD and although markers for diabetes were not improved overall, there was an improvement in prediabetes in individuals with higher levels of Bacteroides species and lower levels of Prevotella species. It was concluded that a MD may reduce cholesterol and alter the gut microbiome to benefit cardiovascular health. Health professionals could use this study to switch patients to a MD whilst maintaining their energy intake to reduce cardiovascular risk. In order to see maximum benefit, it would be recommended to take a personalised approach and analyse an individual’s gut microbiome in order to tailor recommendations.
OBJECTIVES This study aimed to explore the effects of an isocaloric Mediterranean diet (MD) intervention on metabolic health, gut microbiome and systemic metabolome in subjects with lifestyle risk factors for metabolic disease. DESIGN Eighty-two healthy overweight and obese subjects with a habitually low intake of fruit and vegetables and a sedentary lifestyle participated in a parallel 8-week randomised controlled trial. Forty-three participants consumed an MD tailored to their habitual energy intakes (MedD), and 39 maintained their regular diets (ConD). Dietary adherence, metabolic parameters, gut microbiome and systemic metabolome were monitored over the study period. RESULTS Increased MD adherence in the MedD group successfully reprogrammed subjects' intake of fibre and animal proteins. Compliance was confirmed by lowered levels of carnitine in plasma and urine. Significant reductions in plasma cholesterol (primary outcome) and faecal bile acids occurred in the MedD compared with the ConD group. Shotgun metagenomics showed gut microbiome changes that reflected individual MD adherence and increase in gene richness in participants who reduced systemic inflammation over the intervention. The MD intervention led to increased levels of the fibre-degrading Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and of genes for microbial carbohydrate degradation linked to butyrate metabolism. The dietary changes in the MedD group led to increased urinary urolithins, faecal bile acid degradation and insulin sensitivity that co-varied with specific microbial taxa. CONCLUSION Switching subjects to an MD while maintaining their energy intake reduced their blood cholesterol and caused multiple changes in their microbiome and metabolome that are relevant in future strategies for the improvement of metabolic health.
You Are What You Eat-The Relationship between Diet, Microbiota, and Metabolic Disorders-A Review.
Plain language summary
The gut microbiota (GM) is a collection of microorganisms living in the digestive tract of humans, which if unbalanced, may have a role in the development of certain disorders such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. A number of factors can imbalance the gut microbiota, one of the main being diet. This review paper of 190 papers aimed to summarise the relationship between GM, diet and modifiable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. Dietary components and the role of carbohydrates, protein and fats in shaping the GM were discussed. It was determined that carbohydrates have the greatest influence, with simple carbohydrates such as the sugars fructose and sucrose having a negative impact and the more complex forms being beneficial. Diet types were also reviewed. Vegetarian and vegan diets appear to increase the diversity of the GM, the Mediterranean diet changes the species balance, and the Western diet imbalances the GM causing diseases such as heart disease. Interestingly the literature points towards a negative impact of the gluten free diet. Diseases such as type 2 diabetes, obesity and increased fats in the blood all display an imbalanced GM causing increased energy harvest from food and disruption of various energy pathways in the body. It was concluded that a balanced diet rich in fruit, vegetables, fibre and healthy fats can promote GM diversity and activity. This study could be used by health care professionals to understand the importance of certain dietary components to promote GM diversity in order to reduce the risk of diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.
The gut microbiota (GM) is defined as the community of microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses) colonizing the gastrointestinal tract. GM regulates various metabolic pathways in the host, including those involved in energy homeostasis, glucose and lipid metabolism, and bile acid metabolism. The relationship between alterations in intestinal microbiota and diseases associated with civilization is well documented. GM dysbiosis is involved in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases, such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and neurological disorders. Multiple factors modulate the composition of the microbiota and how it physically functions, but one of the major factors triggering GM establishment is diet. In this paper, we reviewed the current knowledge about the relationship between nutrition, gut microbiota, and host metabolic status. We described how macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, fat) and different dietary patterns (e.g., Western-style diet, vegetarian diet, Mediterranean diet) interact with the composition and activity of GM, and how gut bacterial dysbiosis has an influence on metabolic disorders, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hyperlipidemia.