Impact of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation on Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome-A Systematic Review.
Plain language summary
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a relatively new field of scientific exploration where patients receive faeces from a healthy donor to help repopulate their intestinal tract with healthful bacteria. The gut microbiome is an ecosystem of an estimated 10~100 trillion microorganisms and there is increasing research on the important role these bacteria play in supporting our health and weight. This study reviews all trials involving faecal transports in patients with either clinical obesity or Metabolic syndrome to see if it helped improve weight, bmi or other metabolic parameters. Three studies with 76 male patients were included in this review and the results showed that FMT recipients had improved insulin sensitivity and reduced HbA1c glucose levels after 6 weeks, but these improvements were short-term only. There were no differences in bmi, cholesterol, markers and fasting glucose levels. The conclusion is that whilst FMT may confer benefits there is still much to understand about the fecal microbial preparation, dosing, and method of delivery, as well as the host patient’s response.
undefined: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a gut microbial-modulation strategy that has been investigated for the treatment of a variety of human diseases, including obesity-associated metabolic disorders. This study appraises current literature and provides an overview of the effectiveness and limitations of FMT as a potential therapeutic strategy for obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS). Five electronic databases and two gray literature sources were searched up to 10 December 2018. All interventional and observational studies that contained information on the relevant population (adult patients with obesity and MS), intervention (receiving allogeneic FMT) and outcomes (metabolic parameters) were eligible. From 1096 unique citations, three randomized placebo-controlled studies (76 patients with obesity and MS, body mass index = 34.8 ± 4.1 kg/m , fasting plasma glucose = 5.8 ± 0.7 mmol/L) were included for review. Studies reported mixed results with regards to improvement in metabolic parameters. Two studies reported improved peripheral insulin sensitivity (rate of glucose disappearance, RD) at 6 weeks in patients receiving donor FMT versus patients receiving the placebo control. In addition, one study observed lower HbA1c levels in FMT patients at 6 weeks. No differences in fasting plasma glucose, hepatic insulin sensitivity, body mass index (BMI), or cholesterol markers were observed between two groups across all included studies. While promising, the influence of FMT on long-term clinical endpoints needs to be further explored. Future studies are also required to better understand the mechanisms through which changes in gut microbial ecology and engraftment of microbiota affect metabolic outcomes for patients with obesity and MS. In addition, further research is needed to better define the optimal fecal microbial preparation, dosing, and method of delivery.
Fermented Foods: Definitions and Characteristics, Impact on the Gut Microbiota and Effects on Gastrointestinal Health and Disease.
Plain language summary
Fermented foods have grown in popularity due to their proposed health benefits but there is limited clinical evidence for the effectiveness of most fermented foods in gastrointestinal health. This review paper looks at non-dairy fermented foods which have been studied in at least one RCT: kefir, sauerkraut, natto, and sourdough bread. The health benefits are attributed to the high ratio of probiotic microorganisms, metabolites, or ability to convert compounds into active metabolites, as well as prebiotics and vitamins contained in these foods. Kimchi has the greatest evidence from epidemiological and case control studies investigating risk of gastric cancers. Different food composition of kimchi is shown to both increase and decrease risks, whilst it had no impact on H. pylori levels. There were no studies on kefir in functional bowel disorders however, it was shown to help lactose malabsorption and reduce H. pylori levels. A small RCT on Sauerkraut showed it reduced IBS severity in patients and increased in vitro activity of key liver and kidney detoxifying enzymes. There are small pockets of data that show that tempeh may influence gut microbiota in humans, and that natto may increase bifidobacterial and short-chain fatty acids in healthy volunteers. There are numerous limited cohort studies on miso and cancer risk but no studies on gastrointestinal conditions. Finally, sourdough was shown to reduce FODMAPS and be better tolerated in IBS patients, reducing bloating, nausea and discomfort. Overall, all the studies provide insufficient evidence on fermented foods and gastrointestinal health.
undefined: Fermented foods are defined as foods or beverages produced through controlled microbial growth, and the conversion of food components through enzymatic action. In recent years, fermented foods have undergone a surge in popularity, mainly due to their proposed health benefits. The aim of this review is to define and characterise common fermented foods (kefir, kombucha, sauerkraut, tempeh, natto, miso, kimchi, sourdough bread), their mechanisms of action (including impact on the microbiota), and the evidence for effects on gastrointestinal health and disease in humans. Putative mechanisms for the impact of fermented foods on health include the potential probiotic effect of their constituent microorganisms, the fermentation-derived production of bioactive peptides, biogenic amines, and conversion of phenolic compounds to biologically active compounds, as well as the reduction of anti-nutrients. Fermented foods that have been tested in at least one randomised controlled trial (RCT) for their gastrointestinal effects were kefir, sauerkraut, natto, and sourdough bread. Despite extensive in vitro studies, there are no RCTs investigating the impact of kombucha, miso, kimchi or tempeh in gastrointestinal health. The most widely investigated fermented food is kefir, with evidence from at least one RCT suggesting beneficial effects in both lactose malabsorption and eradication. In summary, there is very limited clinical evidence for the effectiveness of most fermented foods in gastrointestinal health and disease. Given the convincing in vitro findings, clinical high-quality trials investigating the health benefits of fermented foods are warranted.