Beverage consumption patterns among 4-19 y old children in 2009-14 NHANES show that the milk and 100% juice pattern is associated with better diets.
Nutrition journal. 2018;17(1):54
Plain language summary
Recommendations for milk and/or fruit juice consumption in children’s diets has remained inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess whether patterns in beverage consumption among children and adolescents can influence food choices and overall diet quality. Beverage consumption patterns of 8119 children and adolescents were analysed based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Beverage patterns were defined as milk pattern, juice pattern, milk and juice or other caloric beverages. This analysis found that while children rarely limit their drinking choices to a single beverage, those who primarily consumed milk, juice or a combination of the two were associated with better dietary choices. Based on this study, the authors conclude that promotion of milk and juice consumption, compared to other caloric beverages, may be an effective way to improve overall diet quality in children and adolescents.
BACKGROUND Patterns of beverage consumption among children and adolescents can be indicative of food choices and total diet quality. METHODS Analyses of beverage consumption patterns among 8119 children aged 4-19 y were based on the first 24-h recall of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009-14 NHANES). Four pre-defined beverage patterns were: 1) milk pattern; 2) 100% juice pattern; 3) milk and 100% juice pattern; and 4) other caloric beverages. Food- and nutrient-based diet quality measures included the Healthy Eating Index 2010. RESULTS Most children drank other caloric beverages, as opposed to milk (17.8%), 100% juice (5.6%), or milk and 100% juice (13.5%). Drinkers of milk and 100% juice had diets that did not differ from each other in total calories, total and added sugars, fiber, or vitamin E. Milk drinkers consumed more dairy and had higher intakes of calcium, potassium, vitamin A and vitamin D as compared to all other patterns. Juice drinkers consumed more total fruit, same amounts of whole fruit, and had higher intakes of vitamin C as compared to the other consumption patterns. Drinkers of both milk and 100% juice had the highest HEI 2010 scores of all the consumption patterns. CONCLUSIONS Beverage consumption patterns built around milk and/or 100% juice were relatively uncommon. Promoting the drinking of milk and 100% juice, in preference to other caloric beverages, may be an effective strategy to improve children's diet quality. Restricting milk and 100% juice consumption may encourage the selection of other caloric beverages.
Fecal Microbiome and Food Allergy in Pediatric Atopic Dermatitis: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study.
International archives of allergy and immunology. 2018;175(1-2):77-84
Plain language summary
Atopic diseases, such as atopic dermatitis (AD), asthma and rhinitis, are on the increase worldwide. Exposure to microbes may be important in the development of an atopic disease. Specifically, reduced early-life exposure is thought to be a contributing factor because microbial colonisation of the intestines during infancy plays a crucial role in the maturation of the immune system. AD, also called eczema, is an inflammatory skin disease often seen in small children. Food allergies are common in children with AD, the most common allergens being eggs, cow’s milk, peanuts, soy and wheat. This cross-sectional observational pilot study with 82 young children with a diagnosis of AD set out to identify distinct microbial patterns in the children’s faecal microbiomes associated with a clinical diagnosis of food allergy. Stool and blood samples were collected for a microbiome analysis and IgE antibody measurement, respectively. 20 children had a confirmed food allergy (most commonly to cow’s milk and peanuts), while almost half of the children without a diagnosed food allergy were sensitised to common food allergens after a food challenge. The study identified a faecal microbial signature in children with AD that differentiates between the presence and absence of food allergy. Children with AD and food allergy had more Escherichia coli and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum species and less Bifidobacterium breve, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Akkermansia muciniphila species than children without food allergy. The authors concluded that the study supports a hypothesis that the intestinal microbiome differs in children with AD, depending on whether they have a food allergy or not. They call for future studies to confirm these findings.
BACKGROUND Exposure to microbes may be important in the development of atopic disease. Atopic diseases have been associated with specific characteristics of the intestinal microbiome. The link between intestinal microbiota and food allergy has rarely been studied, and the gold standard for diagnosing food allergy (double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge [DBPCFC]) has seldom been used. We aimed to distinguish fecal microbial signatures for food allergy in children with atopic dermatitis (AD). METHODS Pediatric patients with AD, with and without food allergy, were included in this cross-sectional observational pilot study. AD was diagnosed according to the UK Working Party criteria. Food allergy was defined as a positive DBPCFC or a convincing clinical history, in combination with sensitization to the relevant food allergen. Fecal samples were analyzed using 16S rRNA microbial analysis. Microbial signature species, discriminating between the presence and absence food allergy, were selected by elastic net regression. RESULTS Eighty-two children with AD (39 girls) with a median age of 2.5 years, and 20 of whom were diagnosed with food allergy, provided fecal samples. Food allergy to peanut and cow's milk was the most common. Six bacterial species from the fecal microbiome were identified, that, when combined, distinguished between children with and without food allergy: Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Escherichia coli, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and Akkermansia muciniphila (AUC 0.83, sensitivity 0.77, specificity 0.80). CONCLUSIONS In this pilot study, we identified a microbial signature in children with AD that discriminates between the absence and presence of food allergy. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings.
Self-reported bovine milk intake is associated with oral microbiota composition.
PloS one. 2018;13(3):e0193504
Plain language summary
Dietary bovine milk consumption has been associated with both positive and negative health effects. The aim of this study was to explore the association between bovine milk intake and oral microbiota profile. Saliva and tooth biofilm samples were obtained from 154 Swedish adolescents and food frequency questionnaires were completed. A replication cohort of 31,571 was also studied to find patterns in diet intake, lifestyle factors and dental caries. The primary finding of this study was that bovine milk consumption can modulate oral microbiota, and that low milk intake was associated with higher prevalence of opportunistic bacteria. Interestingly there was no association between milk intake and dental caries, highlighting the complexity of this disease. Based on these results, the authors hypothesise milk consumption may also produce similar effects in the gut microbiome.
Bovine milk intake has been associated with various disease outcomes, with modulation of the gastro-intestinal microbiome being suggested as one potential mechanism. The aim of the present study was to explore the oral microbiota in relation to variation in self-reported milk intake. Saliva and tooth biofilm microbiota was characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing, PCR and cultivation in 154 Swedish adolescents, and information on diet and other lifestyle markers were obtained from a questionnaire, and dental caries from clinical examination. A replication cohort of 31,571 adults with similar information on diet intake, other lifestyle markers and caries was also studied. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modelling separated adolescents with low milk intake (lowest tertile with <0.4 servings/day) apart from those with high intake of milk (≥3.7 servings/day) based on saliva and tooth biofilm, respectively. Taxa in several genera contributed to this separation, and milk intake was inversely associated with the caries causing Streptococcus mutans in saliva and tooth biofilm samples by sequencing, PCR and cultivation. Despite the difference in S. mutans colonization, caries prevalence did not differ between milk consumption groups in the adolescents or the adults in the replication cohort, which may reflect that a significant positive association between intake of milk and sweet products was present in both the study and replication group. It was concluded that high milk intake correlates with different oral microbiota and it is hypothesized that milk may confer similar effects in the gut. The study also illustrated that reduction of one single disease associated bacterial species, such as S. mutans by milk intake, may modulate but not prevent development of complex diseases, such as caries, due to adverse effects from other causal factors, such as sugar intake in the present study.
Bioactivity of soy-based fermented foods: A review.
Biotechnology advances. 2018;37(1):223-238
Plain language summary
Fermented foods are growing in popularity in the West due to their unique flavour and nutritional value. This review investigates the fermentation processes, health-associated bioactive components and underlying mechanisms of the popular fermented soy products Natto, fermented soy milk, Tempeh and soy sauce. Each fermented soy product is summarised based on functional activities. The existing literature points to an overall positive effect on bone health and immune activities. Interestingly, each fermented soy food exhibits different profiles of bioactive components and therefore different mechanisms of action. Based on this review, the authors conclude there is a need for further in-depth human studies with large sample sizes and long-term follow up to better understand these foods benefits and potential toxicity.
For centuries, fermented soy foods have been dietary staples in Asia and, now, in response to consumer demand, they are available throughout the world. Fermentation bestows unique flavors, boosts nutritional values and increases or adds new functional properties. In this review, we describe the functional properties and underlying action mechanisms of soy-based fermented foods such as Natto, fermented soy milk, Tempeh and soy sauce. When possible, the contribution of specific bioactive components is highlighted. While numerous studies with in vitro and animal models have hinted at the functionality of fermented soy foods, ascribing health benefits requires well-designed, often complex human studies with analysis of diet, lifestyle, family and medical history combined with long-term follow-ups for each subject. In addition, the contribution of the microbiome to the bioactivities of fermented soy foods, possibly mediated through direct action or bioactive metabolites, needs to be studied. Potential synergy or other interactions among the microorganisms carrying out the fermentation and the host's microbial community may also contribute to food functionality, but the details still require elucidation. Finally, safety evaluation of fermented soy foods has been limited, but is essential in order to provide guidelines for consumption and confirm lack of toxicity.
Dairy intake revisited - associations between dairy intake and lifestyle related cardio-metabolic risk factors in a high milk consuming population.
Nutrition journal. 2018;17(1):110
Plain language summary
Dairy intake and mortality has been evaluated in many studies but the results have been inconclusive. The aim of this cross-sectional and longitudinal study was to evaluate the association between different types of dairy products and metabolic risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Utilising data from the Swedish Vasterbotten Intervention Programme, 90,512 participants completed a food frequency questionnaire and had metabolic risk markers measured for the cross-sectional component of this study. From this cohort, 27,682 subjects returned within 8-11 years to complete the longitudinal component. Dairy intake was further classified as non-fermented milk, fermented milk, cheese and butter. Based on this cross-sectional and longitudinal data, the likelihood of having an undesirable body mass index (BMI) decreased with increasing amount of total dairy, cheese and butter intake, but increased with increasing non-fermented milk intake. According to these results, the authors conclude confounding variables are likely influencing the association between dairy intake and metabolic disease and suggest future studies be stratified by dairy type.
BACKGROUND The association between milk and dairy intake and the incidence of cardiometabolic diseases, cancer and mortality has been evaluated in many studies, but these studies have had conflicting results with no clear conclusion on causal or confounding associations. The present study aims to further address this association by cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluation of the associations between exposure to various types of dairy products and metabolic risk markers among inhabitants in northern Sweden while taking other lifestyle factors into account. METHODS Respondents in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme with complete and plausible diet data between 1991 and 2016 were included, yielding 124,934 observations from 90,512 unique subjects. For longitudinal analysis, 27,682 participants with a visit 8-12 years after the first visit were identified. All participants completed a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Metabolic risk markers, including body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, serum (S) cholesterol and triglycerides, and blood glucose, were measured. Participants were categorized into quintiles by intake of dairy products, and risk (odds ratios, OR) of undesirable levels of metabolic risk markers was assessed in multivariable logistic regression analyses. In longitudinal analyses, intake quintiles were related to desirable levels of metabolic risk markers at both visits or deterioration at follow-up using Cox regression analyses. RESULTS The OR of being classified with an undesirable BMI decreased with increasing quintiles of total dairy, cheese and butter intake but increased with increasing non-fermented milk intake. The OR of being classified with an undesirable S-cholesterol level increased with increasing intake of total dairy, butter and high fat (3%) non-fermented milk, whereas an undesirable S-triglyceride level was inversely associated with cheese and butter intake in women. In longitudinal analyses, increasing butter intake was associated with deterioration of S-cholesterol and blood glucose levels, whereas increasing cheese intake was associated with a lower risk of deterioration of S-triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS Confounding factors likely contribute to the demonstrated association between dairy intake and mortality, and other medical conditions and analyses should be stratified by dairy type.