Egg Consumption in U.S. Children is Associated with Greater Daily Nutrient Intakes, including Protein, Lutein + Zeaxanthin, Choline, α-Linolenic Acid, and Docosahexanoic Acid.
Plain language summary
Dietary guidelines recommend children and adolescents consume nutrient-dense foods to promote growth and development, and recently eggs have been included in these recommendations. At present, there are no studies in children and adolescents that have examined nutrient-related associations of egg consumption. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate egg consumption and nutrient intakes, diet quality and growth outcomes relative to non-egg consumers. Using cross-sectional data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), data from 3,299 egg consumers and 17,030 non-egg consumers aged 2-18 was examined. Compared with non-egg consumption, egg consumption was associated with elevated intake of protein, healthy fats, antioxidants and various vitamins and minerals, and lower intake of sugar. There were several shortfall nutrients associated with egg consumption including fibre, iron, and folate. No associations were found when examining diet quality and growth-relate measures. This analysis demonstrated several nutrient-related benefits to support the continued inclusion of eggs in the dietary patterns of children and adolescents. Based on these results, the authors conclude this study illustrates an opportunity to communicate the benefits linked with egg consumption to individuals that influence children and adolescents.
undefined: Dietary pattern recommendations include consuming a variety of nutrient-dense foods in children and adolescents to promote optimal growth and development. The current study investigated associations with egg consumption and nutrient intakes, diet quality, and growth outcomes relative to non-egg consumers. The analysis used data from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2012 in children and adolescents aged 2-18 years ( = 3,299, egg consumers; = 17,030, egg non-consumers). Daily energy and nutrient intakes were adjusted for the complex sample design of NHANES using appropriate weights. Consuming eggs was associated with increased daily energy intake relative to non-egg consumption. Children and adolescents consuming eggs had elevated daily intake of protein, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and total fat, α-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), choline, lutein + zeaxanthin, vitamin D, potassium, phosphorus, and selenium. Egg consumers had greater consumption, sodium, saturated fat, with reduced total and added sugar versus egg non-consumers. The analysis also showed that egg consumption was linked with lower intake of dietary folate, iron, and niacin. No associations were determined when examining diet quality and growth-related measures. A sub-analysis considering socioeconomic status showed that egg consumption was positively related with daily lutein + zeaxanthin and DHA intake. The current analysis demonstrated several nutrient-related benefits to support the continued inclusion of eggs in the dietary patterns of children and adolescents.
Beverage consumption patterns among 4-19 y old children in 2009-14 NHANES show that the milk and 100% juice pattern is associated with better diets.
Nutrition journal. 2018;17(1):54
Plain language summary
Recommendations for milk and/or fruit juice consumption in children’s diets has remained inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess whether patterns in beverage consumption among children and adolescents can influence food choices and overall diet quality. Beverage consumption patterns of 8119 children and adolescents were analysed based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Beverage patterns were defined as milk pattern, juice pattern, milk and juice or other caloric beverages. This analysis found that while children rarely limit their drinking choices to a single beverage, those who primarily consumed milk, juice or a combination of the two were associated with better dietary choices. Based on this study, the authors conclude that promotion of milk and juice consumption, compared to other caloric beverages, may be an effective way to improve overall diet quality in children and adolescents.
BACKGROUND Patterns of beverage consumption among children and adolescents can be indicative of food choices and total diet quality. METHODS Analyses of beverage consumption patterns among 8119 children aged 4-19 y were based on the first 24-h recall of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009-14 NHANES). Four pre-defined beverage patterns were: 1) milk pattern; 2) 100% juice pattern; 3) milk and 100% juice pattern; and 4) other caloric beverages. Food- and nutrient-based diet quality measures included the Healthy Eating Index 2010. RESULTS Most children drank other caloric beverages, as opposed to milk (17.8%), 100% juice (5.6%), or milk and 100% juice (13.5%). Drinkers of milk and 100% juice had diets that did not differ from each other in total calories, total and added sugars, fiber, or vitamin E. Milk drinkers consumed more dairy and had higher intakes of calcium, potassium, vitamin A and vitamin D as compared to all other patterns. Juice drinkers consumed more total fruit, same amounts of whole fruit, and had higher intakes of vitamin C as compared to the other consumption patterns. Drinkers of both milk and 100% juice had the highest HEI 2010 scores of all the consumption patterns. CONCLUSIONS Beverage consumption patterns built around milk and/or 100% juice were relatively uncommon. Promoting the drinking of milk and 100% juice, in preference to other caloric beverages, may be an effective strategy to improve children's diet quality. Restricting milk and 100% juice consumption may encourage the selection of other caloric beverages.
Joint association between body fat and its distribution with all-cause mortality: A data linkage cohort study based on NHANES (1988-2011).
PloS one. 2018;13(2):e0193368
Plain language summary
Recent findings suggest both underweight and obesity based on body mass index (BMI) were associated with the increased risk of mortality. As BMI cannot discriminate between lean mass and body fat mass, it is unclear whether the amount and distribution of body fat impacts mortality risk. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether fat distribution confers any additional risk of mortality in addition to fat amount. This data linkage cohort study included 16415 participants aged 18 to 89 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and its linked mortality data. A total of 4999 deaths occurred during the 19-year follow up and body fat percentages were estimated based on bioelectrical impedance analysis and waist-hip ratio (WHR). This study showed both body fat percentage and WHR are independently associated with mortality. Based on these findings the authors conclude both the amount of body fat and its distribution should be considered with assessing all-cause mortality risk.
OBJECTIVE Although obesity is recognized as an important risk of mortality, how the amount and distribution of body fat affect mortality risk is unclear. Furthermore, whether fat distribution confers any additional risk of mortality in addition to fat amount is not understood. METHODS This data linkage cohort study included 16415 participants (8554 females) aged 18 to 89 years from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994) and its linked mortality data (31 December 2011). Cox proportional hazard models and parametric survival models were used to estimate the association between body fat percentage (BF%), based on bioelectrical impedance analysis, and waist-hip ratio (WHR) with mortality. RESULTS A total of 4999 deaths occurred during 19-year follow-up. A U-shaped association between BF% and mortality was found in both sexes, with the adjusted hazard ratios for other groups between 1.02 (95% confidence interval: 0.89, 1.18) and 2.10 (1.47, 3.01) when BF% groups of 25-30% in males and 30-35% in females were used as references. A non-linear relationship between WHR and mortality was detected in males, with the adjusted hazard ratios among other groups ranging from 1.05 (0.94, 1.18) to 1.52 (1.15, 2.00) compared with the WHR category of 0.95-1.0. However in females, the death risk constantly increased across the WHR spectrum. Joint impact of BF% and WHR suggested males with BF% of 25-30% and WHR of 0.95-1.0 and females with BF% of 30-35% and WHR <0.9 were associated with the lowest mortality risk and longest survival age compared with their counterparts in other categories. CONCLUSIONS This study supported the use of body fat distribution in addition to fat amount in assessing the risk of all-cause mortality.